Climate Temperature Factors 1. Latitude Average Yearly Temperature Yearly Temperature Range 2. Altitude 3. Ocean Currents 4. Marine Vs. Continental
Rainfall Factors 1. Latitude 2. Mountains - Orographic Precipitation Latitude - Average Yearly Temperature The area that receives As latitude increases, average yearly the most direct rays of the
temperatures decreases Sun (equator, 0) will have the highest yearly temperatures. Avg. The area that receives the least direct rays of the sun (poles, 90) will have the lowest yearly temperatures.
Yearly Temp. 0 90 Latitude Latitude - Yearly Temperature
Range Equatorial areas receive the direct rays of the Sun for most of the year. Therefore, the yearly temperature does not change much. Temperature Low Latitudes Mid Latitudes High Latitudes JFMAMJJASOND
Month Latitude - Yearly Temperature Range As latitude increases, yearly temperature range increases 0 90
Latitude Altitude - Average Yearly Temperature Range Altitude - the height of an object above sea level. Low average yearly temperature range High average yearly temperature range
Altitude - Average Yearly Temperature As altitude increases, average yearly temperature decreases Altitude Ocean Currents Ocean currents move warm water from
the equator towards the poles. Ocean currents move cold water from the poles back to the equator to be heated again. (pg. _4_ of ESRT) Animatio n Ocean Currents Marine vs. Continental
Sea or land locations affects temperature ranges. Since land gains and loses heat much more quickly than water, land areas tend to have warmer summers and cooler winters. Coastal areas near the ocean have cooler summers and milder/warmer winters. Coastal areas have marine climates with a small yearly temperature range and areas inland have continental climates with a larger yearly temperature range
Marine Vs. Continental This graph shows the average monthly temperatures for two cities, A and B, which are both located at 41N latitude. Why is there a difference in the average yearly temperature range for the two cities? Because City A is located
inland (continental) and Interactive Climate Map City B is located near water Rainfall Factors - Latitude Uneven heating of the Earth produces global wind & pressure belts. These belts determine the wetness or dryness
of an area. Low Pressure - rising air creates precipitation High Pressure sinking air creates a lack of precipitation Animation Latitude Continued
What latitudes are areas of low pressure? 0, 60N, 60S What is the climate like there? High rainfall What latitudes are areas of high 30N, 30S, 90N, 90S
pressure? What is the climate like there? Low rainfall Orographic Precipitation WINDWARD Windward 4.Condense
s 5. Precipitation 3. rises 2. Cools 1.Expands Rises Warm air
Windward Vs. Leeward Rainfall occurs on the windward side of the mountain where the air is rising. Cool & Wet It is dry on the leeward side of the mountain where the air is sinking. Warm & Dry Orographic Precipitation Video
El Nino A warming of the surface water of the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, occurring every 4 to 12 years and causing unusual global weather patterns. El Nino brings heavy rain to western South American and drought to eastern Australia and Indonesia. Animatio
n El Nino Video Lake Effect Snow The air moving over the water needs to be cooler than the water. The surface of the lake cant be frozen
Lake Effect Snow Water begins evaporating off of the surface of the lake into the air. Fetch - distance over open water The greater distance the
wind blows over the warm water, the greater the convection /evaporation. Lake Effect Snow CLOUD FORMATION CONDENSES COOL EXPAND
RISE Warm air over water begins to Lake Effect Snow In some localities, wind blowing from a lake onshore is forced to climb up hills creating the
orographic effect Lake Effect Snow Video Areas Affected by Lake Effect
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