Today Sociolinguistics, Day 3 Correction Finish Inter-group Variation:

Today  Sociolinguistics, Day 3  Correction  Finish Inter-group Variation:

Today Sociolinguistics, Day 3 Correction Finish Inter-group Variation: some patterns of variation associated with social class Intra-Speaker Variation: shifting style coke soda pop tonic

soft drink cocola Lexical differences Words for sweetened carbonated beverage Coke CA, New Eng. Soda South, East Pop Midland North, West Tonic Boston Cocola Georgia, Tennessee Overt vs. Covert prestige

Overt prestige: Value attached to a particular dialect by the community at large that defines how people should speak to gain status in that community. Covert prestige: Value attached to a particular dialect or

minority group language by a subset of the community (local group, ethnic group). Social class and dialect William Labov New York City r-lessness Studied variation in [r] pronunciation as it relates to socioeconomic class Dept Store study - Method Interviewed salespeople at Saks 5th Ave., (upper), Macys (middle), S. Klein (lower class)

Excuse me, where are the [womens shoes]? Fourth floor. (casual speech) Excuse me? Fourth floor. (careful speech with emphasis) Dept Store study - Results Klein Lower Casual Careful Intraspeaker Variation

8% 18% Macys Saks Middle Upper 44% 61% Interspeaker

Variation 63% 64% Percentage of [r]s produced Dept Store study - Conclusions Pronunciation of [r] increased

w/ level of socio-economic class w/ attention level paid to speech (careful or casual) w/ listener (perceived middle-class) Variation most prominent among lower class speakers Why? Overt prestige Phonological markers of style

Casual, informal style marked by increased speech rate unstressed vowels deleted, replaced with schwa, e.g., potato casual [ptHeIR] vs. careful [pHtHeIRoU] deletion of word final consonants, unstressed syllables (jus, don) use of contractions (wanna, gonna, coulda)

Phonological markers of style pronunciation of (-ing) vs. (-in) in 3 different speech situations casual style vs. interview vs. reading [idIn] [idIN] pronounciation of [-ing] increased as formality/ attention paid to speech increased Lexical markers of style

Slang: words and expressions used in very informal settings (common slang), often to indicate membership in a particular social group (in-group slang) usually has short lifespan swell, neat-o, groovy

daddy-o It stinks! can become standardized phone, fridge, fan, blimp, hot dog Syntactic markers of style Casual speech characterized by

increased use of non-standard constructions (e.g., double negatives, double modals) shorter, more concise sentences but Social Class Ethnicity Formality of setting Topic Age Can cause speakers to shift in other ways, too

Code-switching as style-shifting Code-switching: alternation between two or more languages (or dialects) in a single sentence or conversation. Occurs for the same reasons monolinguals shift styles: change in formality of the situation, listener, topic Examples English~Spanish Sometimes I begin my sentences in English, y termino en

espaol. Swahili (Kenya)~English: employeeemployee (same ethnicity): Swahili employee employee (differing ethnicity): mixed Swahili~English employee supervisor: mixed Swahili~English Examples Fanakalo (South Africa)~English Foreman: Hau, Wena

Foreman: Ini ndaba you late lafa lo job, hey? Employee: My abject apologies, Sir, I encountered extreme difficulty In obtaining transport.

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