Recent Macroeconomic Developments: The Czech Republic and the

Recent Macroeconomic Developments: The Czech Republic and the

Recent Macroeconomic Developments: The Czech Republic and the Eurozone Vladimir Tomsik Vicegovernor Czech National Bank National Bank of Cambodia, Phnom Penh 6 January 2016 Outline Brief stylized facts Recent macroeconomic developments in the Czech Republic and the Eurozone CNBs forecast Exchange rate commitment past and future 2 BRIEF STYLIZED FACTS

3 Czech Republic Stylized facts Czech Republic Population: 10.3 mil. Area: 78 866 km2 Capital: Prague (1.3 mil.) Currency: Koruna (CZK) 4

Czech economy Stylized facts A small open economy with per capita GDP close to 85 percent of EU average Since 1998 monetary policy has been conducted under the inflation targeting regime with managed floating currency Inflation target set to 2 percent with 1 pp tolerance band Very open economy with share of exports and imports on GDP close to 85 percent Subject to structural changes and real convergence => trends in nominal shares and real exchange rate appreciation Experienced significant FDI inflows in the past Manufacturing and industrial production, both mainly related to car industry, are key drivers of real growth on the supply side Member of the EU since 2004 5 RECENT MACROECONOMIC

DEVELOPMENTS 6 Brief overview CPI Inflation, (percent YoY) Nominal Interest Rate, (percent, p.a.) Real GDP Growth, (percent) Nominal Exchange Rates 7 GDP growth Structure of annual GDP growth (contributions in p. p. to annual p. change; s. a.)

Demand side: The GDP is growing mainly thanks to the domestic demand. The corporations and the households have stopped postponing their expenditure. Positive fiscal impulse. Contributions of branches to GVA growth (contributions in p. p. to annual p. change; s. a.) Supply side: Industry and services have been contributing mostly to GVA growth since 2014. The recovery was driven by export-oriented manufacturing sector initially, but has now

become broad-based. 8 Labour market Beverage Curve Average nominal wage (annual percentage changes) The economic recovery is having a visible positive impact on the labour market Unemployment has been decreasing noticeably The number of vacancies has been rising steadily and the number of unemployed persons falling since the start of 2014 Nominal average wage has been rising in both business and non-business sector 9 Inflation

Structure of inflation (annual percentage changes; contributions in p. p.) 2 1 0 -1 1/14 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 Adjusted inflation excluding fuels and food Indirect taxes in non-administered prices Fuel prices 9 10 11

12 1/15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 Administered prices Food prices (including alcoholic beverages and tobacco) Annual consumer price inflation (in per cent) The headline inflation is still well below the CNBs 2% target (0.0-0.3% in fall) Adjusted inflation excluding fuels (core inflation) remains stable, just above 1%. Food prices have returned to a modest year-on-year decline The fuel prices decline is caused by the global drop in oil prices 10 Eurozone Recent recovery of GDP growth which will fluctuate around 2 % Producer prices have declined on the back of world oil prices The subdued inflation is reflected in accommodative ECBs monetary policy

and consequently also in the outlook for 3M EURIBOR and USD/EUR. 11 November 2015 CNBS FORECAST 12 Forecast assumptions The forecast assumes market interest rates to be flat at their current very low level and the exchange rate to be used as a monetary policy instrument until the end of 2016. Consistent with the forecast is an increase in interest rates in 2017.

The exchange rate of the koruna against the euro appreciated slightly in 2015 Q3 to CZK 27.1 on average. The forecast expects it to remain at similar levels in the quarters ahead. After the exit from the exchange rate commitment the koruna will moderately appreciate due to the positive interest rate differential and renewed though compared with the pre-crises period less pronounced real convergence of the Czech economy to its advanced counterparts in the euro area. 13 GDP forecast Current CNBs forecast GDP growth structure ((annual percentage changes; s.a.) The forecast expects that the GDP growth will continue this year

thanks to expanding domestic and external demand and low commodity prices However, in 2016-2017 it will slowdown to just below 3% as extraordinary factors dissipate (government investment and inventories) The forecast implies no tendency for an overheating 14 GDP forecast Household consumption will remain high, driven by continued real income growth. Recently fast investment growth will slow down Exports will continue increasing, reflecting growing foreign demand Imports will be boosted by growing exports and domestic demand 15

Inflation forecast Current CNBs forecast Core inflation (annual percentage changes) Headline inflation will increase and hit the target at the monetary policy horizon Inflation will rise markedly in the period ahead owing to an increase in food price inflation and next year also in adjusted inflation excluding fuel 16 Interest rates forecast Current CNBs forecast of 3M PRIBOR

Market interest rates are assumed to be flat at their current very low level and the exchange rate to be used as a monetary policy instrument until the end of 2016 Consistent with the forecast is an increase in interest rates in 2017 After the exit from the exchange rate commitment the koruna will moderately appreciate due to the positive interest rate differential and renewed 17 EXCHANGE RATE COMMITMENT PAST AND FUTURE 18 Exchange rate commitment In 2012 - 2013, the Czech economy was going through the longest recession in its history (impact of the weakening foreign demand

and proceeding domestic fiscal consolidation): decline of GDP (mainly due to falling consumption and investment) increasing unemployment rate decreasing real wages weak consumer and business confidence Inflation decreased to the lower boundary of the tolerance band around the CNBs 2 % target and it was expected to fall to (or even below) zero Standard monetary policy tools reached their limits: interest rates at technical zero forward guidance verbal FX interventions

19 Exchange rate commitment To avoid deflation or long-term undershooting of the inflation target the Bank Board decided in November 2013 to start using the exchange rate as an additional instrument for easing the monetary conditions: The CNB will intervene on the FX market to weaken the koruna so that the exchange rate is close to CZK 27/EUR. The exchange rate commitment is one-sided: CNB will prevent excessive appreciation of the koruna exchange rate below CZK 27/EUR On the weaker side of the CZK 27/EUR level, the CNB is allowing the exchange rate to move according to supply and demand on the FX market The CNB stands ready to intervene automatically, i.e. without the need for an additional decision of the Bank Board, and without any time or volume

limits CNB is a forward-looking Inflation Targeter 20 The exchange rate after the decision After the CNBs policy announcement, koruna reached 27 CZK/EUR quickly, and has been moving at somewhat weaker levels since then Actual interventions only within few days after the policy decision of the CNB Further interventions needed in late summer 2015 21 Design of the exit The exit will take place only once there are conditions for a sustainable achievement of the 2% inflation target even after the exit,

i.e. without a need to go back to unconventional measures. The exact form of the exit will depend on the actual circumstances, but there is preference for a clean, one-off exit. The exit will be transparent. The exit will mean going back to the managed float regime, in which the central bank stands ready to smooth out excessive exchange rate volatility. 22 Czech vs. Swiss approach and exit MP regime Reason for entry Balance sheet constraints Safe heaven Communication of exit Characteristics of the exit

Regime after exit Swiss Czech officially not IT inflation targeting export competitiveness deflation risk, undershooting of inflation target quite important

none yes, on global scale no (or regional only) none from the very beginning discretionary explicitly linked to sustainable achievement of the inflation target officially free float

managed float Even though the two floors are seemingly quite similar, one can find sharp differences almost in all key aspects of the policy The CNBs approach to the exit will thus be much different from the Swiss case, and so will be market positioning before the exit 23 The exchange rate after the exit The subsequent return to conventional monetary policy will not imply appreciation of the exchange rate at the forecast horizon to the slightly overvalued level recorded before the CNB started intervening: The exchange rate was slightly overvalued before the CNB intervention The weaker exchange rate of the koruna is in the meantime passing through to domestic prices and other nominal variables The absence of counterparty (real-money clients will be hedged by previous

transactions and there will be no counterparty to close the long koruna positions) Slower speed of the real equilibrium appreciation in subsequent years compared to pre-crisis figures (see the next slide) 24 Equilibrium trends in CNBs forecasts in % Before crisis Post-crisis Czech GDP growth 4.0 3.0

Effective EA GDP growth 2.1 1.8 Real exchange rate appreciation 2.4 1.5 The GDP growth differential is likely to be smaller post-crisis than before the crisis (1.2 p.p. now vs. 1.9 p.p before) due to: more mature stage of the GDP catch-up (in PPP, Czech GDP is currently close to 80% of the euro area average) legacy effects of the crisis

As a result, the real exchange rate appreciation trend will also be slower (CNB forecasts assume 1.5 % a year) A part of this may go via an inflation differential, if EA inflation stays below 2 % 25 Thank you for your attention Vladimir Tomsik Vicegovernor Czech National Bank [email protected] 26

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