Functionalist perspective on education Marxist perspective on education

Functionalist perspective on education Marxist perspective on education

Functionalist perspective on education Marxist perspective on education Organisation of the education system Social class and education Formal education Takes place in educational establishments eg schools 1. Serves ruling class interests Passes on ideas and beliefs of the ruling class Early years 3-4, nursery schools and classes Primary Ages 5-11 General trends Middle class students do better in education that working class Informal education Takes place when people gain knowledge from everyday life 2. Breeds competition Exams/ sport encourage competition- helps capitalism Secondary 11-16, range of schools Further 16+ sixth form and colleges The attitudes and values transmitted informally - not explicitly taught 3. Reproduces social class inequalities Education APPEARS to reward fairly, but actually more privileged students do well advantages are passed on Higher 18+ universities 4. Secondary socialisation WC students learn norms and values for working class jobs - Students allocated to school based on 11+ exam - Grammar, secondary modern and secondary technical - Some counties still have this - Criticised for labelling - Divided social class into service (upper), intermediate and working class - Evidence of social class inequalities in education - Boy from service class 11x more likely to go to university A society where rewards are allocated on the basis of merit, not background Tripartite system: 1944- 1965 Halsey, Heath and Ridge (1980) RM: faceto-face survey Hidden curriculum Meritocracy 1. Durkheim: Building social cohesion Educations builds social solidarity (feeling of being part of society) by teaching shared norms and values: society in miniature Bowles and Gintis: Correspondenc e Principle Comprehensi ve system: 1965 onwards 2. Durkheim: Teaching skills for work In a complex industrial society, different people must know different skills which they learn in education RM: questionnaires and secondary data - Role of education is to produce an obedient workforce who obey orders - Schools reward the same traits as a working class workplace - This is through the hidden curriculum - Meritocracy is a myth Comprehensi ve Run by local council, with no entry requirements 3. Parsons: teaching core values Education prepares children for society by treating them with universalistic standards, not particularistic like the family. Achieved, rather than ascribed status is given: meritocractic Willis: antischool subcultures - Studied 12 boys The Lads who rejected the norms and values of the school - an anti-school subculture - School did not make them obedient and submissive Academy Not controlled by local council, but by trusts, funded by government Special school Caters for students with additional learning needs Free school Funded by the government, can be set up and run by any group The education system matches individuals to future jobs based on their talents and skills Criticisms 1. Exaggerate power of the education system 2. Functionalists value consensus 3. Workers must be creative Independen t (feepaying) schools - Alternative provision - 4. Parsons: role allocation Criticisms 1. Marxists argue ruling class ideology is transmitted 2. Not all students accept values 3. Not all skills for work Opportunity is not equal RM: participant observation Feminist perspective Argue that schools pass on patriarchal values - No entrance exam, comprehensive schools accept all students - Achievement still affected by background, however Types of school today - - Private schools are not run by the government and they charge fees 7% of population attend one Better facilities etc but unequal Some parents are home-schooled with home-tuition Illich argues for deschooling = abolishing schools and education Explanations for inequalities 1. Material deprivation Overcrowding, poor housing, poor diet and lack of tutoring and educational resources 2. Parental values Middle class parents tend to value education and be more involved which impacts attainment

3. Cultural deprivation Low income students lack cultural resources to succeed eg visits to museums, classical music etc 4. Cultural capital Middle class students know the skills and values of the middleclass, whereas WC may not Ball, Bowe and Gewirtz (1994) RM: interviews/ secondary data Marketisati on = schools more like businesses 1. Schools must look good in league tables to attract students, so try to attract more able students 2. Middle-class parents have an advantage in choosing a school as they have material and cultural resources 3. This has made the education system less equal and given an advantage to the middle classes Internal processes Ethnicity and education Interactionism Sociological approach focusing on small-scale interactions between people, such as between teachers and students Labelling Evidence suggests teachers classify students based on their perceptions of them this labelling can be positive or negative. It may be based on a pupils social class background. It can affect how a teacher treats a pupil Self-fulfilling prophecy 1. Teacher labels student eg deviant 2. Teacher changes behaviour towards pupil 3. Student internalises label and acts how the teacher expects Streaming Students allocated to classes based on their general ability eg BDA rank order classes Setting Students allocated to classes based on performance in that subject - More lower class students in lower sets - Negative labelling/ self-fulfilling prophecy Ball (1981) Banding and Teacher Expectations RM: Participant observation Pupil subcultures Willis: Anti-school subculture (Marxist perspective) 1.. Case study of comprehensive school Beachside Comprehensive 2. School sorted pupils into bands based on ability linked to social class too 3. Teacher expectations differed in bands 4. When bands were abolished, teachers still labelled students and treated them differently Streaming/ setting and labelling can lead to antischool subcultures groups of pupils who reject the norms and values of the school 1. Subculture focused on having a laff 2. Values of subcultures stressed masculinity and toughness - saw learning as unmanly 3. Willis argues the subculture prepared the boys for working class manual jobs eg plumbers, thus serving capitalism Patterns of achievement Gender and education 1. Chinese and Indian students are most likely to succeed 2. Black Caribbean and Pakistani students are least likely to succeed 3. Ssocial class is also important 4. White working class boys do the worst External (home) factors Material deprivation Students from some backgrounds eg Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean are more likely to live in poverty Cultural factors Schools are organised around white, mainstream culture so some ethnic minority students may be disadvantaged Parental values/ attitudes Chinese culture values education highly, so Chinese parents are more likely to encourage their children to do well Language If students do not speak English as their first language they may struggle in lessons Internal (school) factors 1. Type of school attended 2. Teacher expectations and labelling 3. Ethnocentric curric culum 1. Some sociologists argue ethnic minority students are more likely to attend a poorer school with less resources etc. 2. Teachers may have higher expectations of, for example, Chinese students and lower expectations of others and therefore treat students differently 3. Formal curriculum focuses on white history, books etc excluding BME pupils 4. Institutional racism 4. Unintended consequence of how schools are organised racism within organisations eg high exclusion rate for black pupils Government policy It is illegal for schools to discriminate on ethnicity Patterns in achievement 1. Before the 1980s, boys did better than girls in education 2. By the early 2000s, girls did better than boys at every stage in education 3. However, with the introduction of 100% exam GCSEs, the gap has started to narrow Patterns in subject choice 1. Girls are more likely to choose English and Art at A-level, whereas boys are more likely to choose physics and maths 2. This is linked to the gendered curriculum different subjects being seen as masculine or feminine Reasons for girls achievements Feminism Girls ambitions are no longer to be housewives, Legal changes Equal Pay Act and Sex Discrimination act Equal opportunities Schools have equal opportunities policies to help girls National curriculum Means schools can no longer offer a gendered curriculum Reasons for boys underachievement Feminisation of schools Schools are too girl friendly with a lack of male teachers as role models Crisis of masculinity Males no longer have a clear-cut role as breadwinners so lack motivation Laddish subcultures Boys are more likely to be part of laddish antischool subcultures Reasons for differences in subject-choice 1. Gender socialisation eg boys encouraged to play with science kits, and girls encouraged to read and draw 2. Gender stereotyping in textbooks, by teachers, gendered curriculum and socialisation in schools Functionalist perspective on education Marxist perspective on education Organisation of the education system Social class and education Formal education 1. Serves ruling class interests Passes on ideas and beliefs of the ruling class Early years 3-4, nursery schools and classes Primary Ages 5-11 General trends Middle class students do better in education that working class Informal education 2. Breeds

competition Exams/ sport encourage competition- helps capitalism Secondary 11-16, range of schools Further 16+ sixth form and colleges 3. Reproduces social class inequalities Education APPEARS to reward fairly, but actually more privileged students do well advantages are passed on Higher 18+ universities Tripartite system: 1944- 1965 - Students allocated to school based on 11+ exam - Grammar, secondary modern and secondary technical - Some counties still have this - Criticised for labelling Halsey, Heath and Ridge (1980) RM: faceto-face survey - Divided social class into service (upper), intermediate and working class - Evidence of social class inequalities in education - Boy from service class 11x more likely to go to university Hidden curriculum The ______________transmitted informally - not explicitly taught Meritocracy A society where rewards are allocated on the basis of _________, not _____________ 4. Secondary socialisation WC students learn norms and values for working class jobs 1. Durkheim: Building social cohesion Educations builds _______(feeling of being part of society) by teaching shared _________ and _______: society in miniature Bowles and Gintis: Correspondenc e Principle Comprehensi ve system: 1965 onwards 2. Durkheim: Teaching skills for work In a complex _________ society, different people must know different _______ which they learn in education RM: questionnaires and secondary data - Role of education is to produce an obedient workforce who obey orders - Schools reward the same traits as a working class workplace - This is through the hidden curriculum - Meritocracy is a myth Comprehensi ve Run by local council, with no entry requirements 3. Parsons: teaching core values Education prepares children for society by treating them with __________ standards, not ___________ like the family. Achieved, rather than ________ status is given: meritocractic Willis: antischool subcultures - Studied 12 boys The Lads who rejected the norms and values of the school - an anti-school subculture - School did not make them obedient and submissive Academy Not controlled by local council, but by trusts, funded by government Special school Caters for students with additional learning needs Free school Funded by the government, can be set up and run by any group The education system matches individuals to __________based on their _________ and skills Criticisms 1. Exaggerate power of the education system 2. Functionalists value consensus 3. Workers must be creative Independen t (feepaying) schools - Alternative provision - 4. Parsons: role allocation Criticisms 1. Marxists argue ________ class ideology is transmitted 2. Not all students ___________ 3. Not all skills for work taught ____________ is not equal RM: participant observation Feminist perspective Argue that schools pass on patriarchal values - No entrance exam, comprehensive schools accept all students - Achievement still affected by background, however Types of school today - - Private schools are not run by the government and they charge fees 7% of population attend one Better facilities etc but unequal Some parents are home-schooled with home-tuition Illich argues for deschooling = abolishing schools and education Explanations for inequalities 1. Material deprivation Overcrowding, poor housing, poor diet and lack of tutoring and educational resources 2. Parental values Middle class parents tend to value education and be more involved which impacts attainment 3. Cultural deprivation Low income students lack cultural resources to succeed eg visits to museums, classical music etc 4. Cultural capital Middle class students know the skills and values of the middleclass, whereas WC may not Ball, Bowe and Gewirtz (1994) RM: interviews/ secondary data Marketisati on = schools more like businesses 1. Schools must look good in league tables to attract students, so try to attract more able students 2. Middle-class parents have an advantage in choosing a school as they have material and cultural resources 3. This has made the education system less equal and given an advantage to the middle classes

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