MATERIALS Part 2: Types of Materials MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
MATERIALS Part 2: Types of Materials MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Hardness: ability to resist indentation or abrasion Elasticity: ability to return to original shape after undergoing a constraint Resilience: ability to resist shock without breaking Ductility: ability to be stretched without breaking
Malleability: ability to be flattened or bent without breaking Stiffness: ability to retain shape when subjected to various constraints WOOD Wood material from trees Two Types Hard wood high hardness; comes from deciduous trees (i.e. maple) Soft wood low hardness; comes from conifer trees (i.e. pine) Mechanical properties of wood Vary with
Tree species Speed of Growth (dependent on environmental conditions) and Injuries Water content of the wood TYPES OF WOOD Hardwood Softwood WOOD Other properties of wood Hardness, Elasticity, Resilience and Toughness
Low Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Ease it can be shaped Colour and Shades Lightness MODIFIED WOOD Is treated wood or a material made from wood mixed with other substances Made by gluing together pieces, sheets or residue of wood left over after timber harvesting Properties of modified wood more consistent than regular wood
Examples Plywood, Particleboard, Fibreboard TYPES OF MODIFIED WOOD Particleboard Plywood METALS AND ALLOYS Metals Material extracted from
mineral ore Properties: Shiny Malleable Ductile Good electrical conductivity Alloys Mixture of a metal with one or more other substances These other substances can be metallic or non-metallic
Two types Ferrous Alloy (main component is iron) Nonferrous Alloy (main component something else than iron) PLASTICS Made from fossil fuels Monomers are extracted and arranged in chains to form polymers Plastics made from polymers which other substances can
be added to, to get specific properties Are poor conductors of heat and electricity TWO CATEGORIES OF PLASTICS Thermoplastics Thermosetting Plastics Plastic that becomes soft enough when heated to be molded/remolded and that hardens enough when cooled
Plastic that remains permanently hard (even when heated) of plastics produced in the world Harder and more resilient than thermoplastics Some are recyclable (need to
have sign) Not recyclable in Quebec Melamine; polyesters
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