FOR462: Watershed Science & Management More on Aquifer Types 8 FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Hydraulic Head Pressure: P = gh p Where: = density of water (kg m-3) g = gravitational acceleration (m s -2) hp = pressure head
Total hydraulic head (ht): ht = z + h p Where: z = elevation hp = pressure head 9 hp ht a z
datum FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Darcys Law Darcys Law defines groundwater flow: dht Q =kv A dx where: Q is discharge (L3 T-1) kv is the hydraulic conductivity (L T-1) A is area of flow (L2), and dht/dx is the gradient of pressure, or head
10 FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Hydraulic Conductivity (kv) 11 Hornberger, 1998 FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Example 800 m 85 m
2m kh=5 m day-1 Fine sand 25 m dht 2 .0 m m m3 Q = kv A = 5 day (25 m 85 m ) = 26.6 day dx 800 m
In systems with high degree of groundwater/surface water connectivity (highly transmissive sediments) Pumping Well Groundwater 14 Cone of Depression FOR462: Watershed Science & Management
Subsidence Causes: Fluid withdrawal Sinkholes Drainage of Organic soils Mining From USGS Professional Paper 1401-A, "Ground water in the Central Valley, California- A summary report" Photo by Dick Ireland, USGS, 1977 15
FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Recharge Zone Protection Example Unconfined Aquifer Recharge Zone Confined Aquifer landfill Municipal well field surface c i r t
e m Piezo Clay 16 flow l Grave Clay FOR462: Watershed Science & Management
Groundwater Development Multiple pumping wells can cause interference between cones of depression Extraction should not exceed recharge Water mining Extraction may cause subsidence Recharge zones should be protected Ensure adequate water flow Ensure quality
Extraction may affect surface water Many watershed management actions are taken to protect quality 17 FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Gaining and Losing Streams 18 Dingman Gaining stream Effluent stream
Losing stream Influent stream Perched losing stream Flow-through stream FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Hyporheic Zone Zone where water is exchanged between surface and groundwater Controlled by geomorphology
(upwelling and downwelling) Biochemical processing: water quality & habitat issues Temperature 19 FOR462: Watershed Science & Management 2nd-Order / Unconstrained reach of WS03, HJA Floodplain Bedrock
Equipotential lines Scale (m) 0 20 25 50 Kasahara & Wondzell (2003) Water Resour. Res. FOR462: Watershed Science & Management Proposed C & D Landfill Example Creek
Constituents of Concern Sulfate Arsenic Chromium Iron 1,2-DCA Total Dissolved Solids Modeled contaminant plumes Zone exceeding MCLs for drinking water
Increased, but MCLs for drinking Water not exceeded Old Gravel Pit Glacial Outwash Domestic Wells Flow Direction 21 Municipal Wells
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