Higher Chemistry Detergents Clean Chemistry NEW LEARNING REVISION

Higher Chemistry Detergents  Clean Chemistry NEW LEARNING REVISION

Higher Chemistry Detergents Clean Chemistry NEW LEARNING REVISION Cleansing Action of Soaps how do they work?

Chemistry of fats and oils Esters What are emulsifiers? Starter Task

Starter Task Starter Task Lesson 1: Soap Production. Today we will learn to Make soap and explain the chemistry of their manufacture.

We will do this by Making our own soap and explaining how they work. We will have succeeded if We can draw a soap molecule and label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends. Making Soaps

p31 Making Soaps Soaps are formed by the alkaline hydrolysis (breaking up) of fats and oils by sodium or potassium hydroxide by boiling under reflux

conditions: The Structure of Soaps p31 The Structure of Soaps

covalent hydrocarbon chain carboxylate head O- Na+ non-polar, oil-soluble, hydrophobic O

polar, water-soluble, hydrophilic In solution a soap molecule consists of a long non-polar hydrocarbon tail (e.g. C17H35-) and a polar head (-COO-).

The Structure of Soaps The long covalent hydrocarbon chain gives rise to the hydrophobic (water hating) and oil-soluble (non-polar) properties of the soap molecule (represented in yellow). The charged carboxylate group (represented in blue) is attracted to water molecules (hydrophilic). In this way, soaps are

composed of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail: Recipe Time Write a recipe for soap using ingredients you would have in the kitchen

cupboard at home. What would you need to do to make it saleable? Starter Task Starter Task

Lesson 2: How Soap Works Today we will learn to Explain how soaps clean things! We will do this by Examining soap and using it to describe the link between bonding and solubility.

We will have succeeded if We can draw a diagram to explain how soaps dissolve grease into water. Cleansing Action of Soap p32 Cleansing Action of Soap

Cleansing Action of Soap The hydrophobic tails dissolve into the droplet of oil or grease. The hydrophilic heads are left to face the surrounding water. This results in the formation of a ball-like structure (a micelle).

The non-polar substances, such as oil or grease, are held inside the ball and suspended in water, to be washed away. Emulsions An emulsion contains small droplets of one

liquid dispersed in another liquid. Emulsions in food are mixtures of oil and water. Examples

of emulsions are mayonnaise and milk which have fat or oil droplets suspended in water and butter and margarine which have water droplets suspended in fat. To prevent oil and water components separating

into layers, a soap-like molecule known as an emulsifier is added. The emulsifier acts in a similar way to a soap. DISCUSS After discussion with your teacher and others can you explain what an emulsion is? NOTES Giving some

examples, explain what an

p32 Emulsions An emulsion contains small droplets of one liquid dispersed in another liquid. Emulsions in Food Emulsions in food are mixtures of oil and

water. To prevent oil and water components separating into layers, a soap-like molecule known as an emulsifier is added. Emulsifiers for use in food are commonly made by reacting edible oils with glycerol to form molecules in which either one or two fatty acid groups are linked to a glycerol backbone rather than the three normally found in edible

oils. The one or two hydroxyl groups present in these molecules are hydrophilic whilst the Emulsions p32 My Word!

Choose a word related to the lesson. You must stand up and point to someone in the class who must then give the meaning. That person then chooses the next person to pose a word. Starter Task

Starter Task Lesson 3: Testing Emulsifiers Today we will learn to Describe emulsification and give some examples of the uses of emulsifiers. We will do this by

Testing different emulsifiers with vegetable oil. We will have succeeded if We can draw a diagram to explain how emulsifiers work. Emulsions

p33 Emulsions p33 Emulsions Activity 2.33

Testing Emulsifying Agents No risk Method: 1. Put 5cm3 of vegetable oil into a boiling tube. 2. Add 5cm3 of water. 3. Add 10 drops of emulsifier from a pipette. 4. Put in the stopper. 5. Invert the tube 10 times to mix the liquids.

6. Time how long it takes for a separate layer of oil to begin forming on the top of the mixture. 7. Repeat using different emulsifying agents. Emulsions p33

Consolidation Task Functional Families You teacher may let you play this card game

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