Incidence of red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) on

Incidence of red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) on

Incidence of red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) on ladysfinger and their sustainable management SUNIL KR. GHOSH Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (University), AINP on Acarology, Kalyani, West Bengal-741235 India. E-mail ID: [email protected] Ladysfinger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) belongs to the family Malvaceae is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in various parts of tropical

and sub-tropical areas of the globe. In the sub-Himalayan region of north east India Ladysfinger is cultivated round the year except winter at a commercial scale but insect and mite pest constitute limiting factors in successful production. The major pests causing damage to okra Leaf hopper/ Jassid- Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Cicadellidae, Hemiptera) Shoot and fruit borer- Earias vitella, E. insulana (Noctuidae,Lepidoptera) Leaf roller-

Sylepta derogata (Pyraustidae,Lepidoptera) Red cotton bug-Dysdercus cingulatus (Pyrrhocoridae, Hemiptera) AphidWhite fly- Aphis gossypii Bemisia tabaci Different species of Flea Beetle (Aphididae, Hemiptera) (Aleyrodidae, hemiptera)

Red Spider Mite- Tetranychus urticae The Flea beetle found dominated in the ladysfinger field , Podagrica bowringi Altica ambiens Phyllotreta striolata Agelastica alni Agelastica alni Syagrus calcaratus

The Flea beetle damage symptoms Jassid- the pest Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the undersurface of leaves While feeding, they inject toxic saliva into plant tissue. Aphid Damage FRUIT BORER They directly damage the edible part i.e., fruits

Damaged fruit White fly: Nymph and adult Vector of YVM White fly- the damage it cause Affected leaves yellowing, drying Stunted growth, reduces flower and fruit setting, fruits smaller in size Transmit viral disease like mosaic Cause up to 63.41% yield loss Tetranychus urticae

Mites Tetranychus urticae Tetranychus urticae Tetranychus urticae Incidence of spider mite on okra plant Objective: Record on pest incidence help to formulate suitable control measure Experimental site:

Instructional farm, UVKV at Pundibari, West Bengal Experimental location: Sub-himalayan region of north-east Period of study: 2010 and 2011 Season of study: - throughout the yr.

except winter (9-45 SMW) Variety : Nirmal 101 Agronomic practices to raise the crop: As recommended Table 1 Correlation co-efficient between weather parameters and incidence of mite Environmental parameter Temperature 0C 0.226 0.051

Y = 0.106x + 32.38 Minimum 0.226 (-)0.147 0.263 0.228 0.384* 0.355* 0.057 0.051 0.021 0.069

0.082 0.147 0.126 0.003 Y = 0.270x + 23.90 Average Maximum Minimum Average Weekly rainfall Regression equation

Maximum Difference Relative Humidity (%) Correlation Co-efficient of co-efficient determination (R2) (r) Total Y = -0.164x + 8.48 Y = 0.188x + 28.14

Y = 0.993x + 79.58 Y = 1.998x + 69.25 Y = 1.497x + 74.42 Y=1.566x+54.75 *Significant at 5% level of significance **Significant at 1% level of significance Results and discussion Highest population(6.18/leaf) during 23 rd SMW (last week of May) in the pre-kharif crop Highest population (7.56/leaf) on the 42 nd SMW (1st week of October) in the post - kharif crop Most active during May and September- October in this region Low population was found because of heavy rains during monsoon

Non-significant positive correlation (p=0.05) with temp. and significant positive correlation with minimum and average RH Significant negative correlation with temp. gradient and with weekly total rainfall. Results and discussion Fig. 2 and 3 represents mite distribution within the plants as follows Most densely populated on the upper canopy (54.32 % population) Moderately populated on the middle canopy (28.79 % population) Thin population on the lower canopy (16.89 % population)

Control of pests with synthetic insecticides Pests on vegetable crops can be ontrolled easily with highly toxic insecticides viz. BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, toxaphene, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate, carbofuran, dimethoate, etc. Problems arise from synthetic insecticides Pesticides accumulate in the environment Contaminate all the systems i.e. air, water, soil, plant, animal etc. Destroy biodiversity bring out ecological disturbance and environmental pollution. The uptake of insecticide residues by some

crops particularly vegetables adversely affects our health. Destroy eco-friendly bio-control agent pesticides disturb the microbial activity of the soil, adversely affect earth worm, predatory mites. Adverse affect on some invertebrates who were responsible soil fertility. Destroy Lady bird beetle and spider population and thus hamper natural control of pest in vegetable field Lady Bird Beetle As Predator (Bio-control agent)

spider Management of the pests The Objectives An attempt has been made to formulate suitable control measure with the use of: Botanical Insecticides (Biopesticides) Botanical Extracts (Biopesticides) Microbial toxins (Biopesticides)

Safe management of pest Sustainable management -Need of the hour Experimental details Experimental site: Period of study: 2010 and 2011 Instructional farm, UVKV at Pundibari, Coochbehar, Season of study: West Bengal, India

- Post-kharif - Biopesticide Laboratory, Deptt. (Early September) of Agril. Entomology Experimental location: Sub-himalayan region of north-east India (26o 20 latitude and 89o24 longitude) Agronomic practices to raise the crop:

As recommended Design followed: RBD Materials used Ladysfinger: Variety Nirmal-101 One botanical insecticides Azadiractin (Neemactin 0.15 EC) @ 2.5 ml/L One botanical extracts Spilanthes paniculata floral parts extract @ 1%, 5.0% One microbial toxin Avermectin (vertimec 1.9 EC) @ 1 ml/L Sulphur (Sulfex 80 WP) @ 5g/ L and Fenazaquin (Magister

10 EC) @ 2 ml/L, chemical insecticides used as check Methodology followed Methanol extraction of Spilanthes paniculata flower Treatment details Treatments Pesticides/ Biopesticides Formulation and doses T1 Avermectin

(Vertimen 1.9 EC) 1 ml/L T2 Azadiractin/Neem (Nemactin 0.15 EC) 2.5 ml/L T3 Spilanthes flower extract (1 %) @ 10 ml/L T4

Spilanthes flower extract (5%) 50.00 ml/L T5 Neem + Spilanthes 5% 2.5 ml/ L + 50 ml/L T6 Sulphur (Sulfex 80 WDP) 5 g/L

T7 Fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) 2 ml/L T8 Untreated control - Four sprays at an interval of 10 days were made, starting with the initiation of infestation.

Recording observations Mite population recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after each spraying population per leaf basis recorded The data computed on the per cent of mite suppressed over control and analyzed statistically Yield calculated on the basis of fruit yield per plot and converted to quintal/ha Overall efficacy of biopesticides against mite, and fruit yield of ladysfinger Treatments T1=Avermectin (Vertimec 1.9 EC)

Dose ml or g/L(%) Pretreatment observation (mites/Leaf) 1 ml/L 3.89 Overall efficacy ( % reduction) Days after treatment 3

6 9 Mean 85.39 (67.62) 72.62 (58.52) 71.19 (57.54) 76.40

(61.23) Fruit yield(q/h) 32.45 T2=Neem (Nemactin 0.15 EC) 2.5 ml/L 4.33 48.15 (43.94)

45.94 (42.65) 37.08 (37.51) 43.72 (41.37) 27.44 T3=Spilanthes flower extract (1%) 10 ml/L 4.21

33.93 (35.61) 34.56 (36.01) 27.33 (31.52) 31.94 (34.38) 23.47 T4= Spilanthes flower extract (5%)

50 ml/L 3.89 44.93 (35.61) 34.56 (36.01) 36.47 (37.13) 38.65 (36.25)

26.11 T5= Neem+Spilanthes extract (5%) 2.5 ml/L+ 50 ml/L 4.56 73.42 (57.95) 70.10 (56.79)

68.47 (55.89) 70.66 34.58 5 g/L 3.78 80.16 (63.38) 59.01 (51.49)

64.59 (53.50) 86.35 (68.40) 79.97 (64.36) 71.41 (57.37) (63.38) T6= Sulphur (Sulfex 80 WP)

T7= Fenazaquin(Magister 10EC) 2ml/L 4.33 (56.88) 67.92 (56.12) 79.24 31.55 31.23

T8=Untreated check(control) - 4.21 0.00 (4.05) 0.00 (4.05) 0.00 (4.05) 0.00

(4.05) 21.72 SEm() - NS 1.94 5.77 2.41 7.18

2.03 6.03 - 1.71 5.08 CD(p=0.05) Figures in parentheses are angular transformed values, NS = Not significant Results and discussion Fenazaquin resulted best suppression of

flea beetle population (79.24% suppression), closely followed by Avermectin (76 .40%) and mixed formulation neem and spilanthes (70.66%). among the biopesticides, However, Avermectin was found most effective followed by mixed formulation neem and spilanthes. CONCLUSION From overall observations: most active during May--June and September--October in this region, deliberate

control measure should be adopted. Upper canopy densely populated, so properly treated. Avermectin and Azadiractin with Plant extracts spilanthes (bio-pesticides) gave better control, be incorporated in IPM programme and organic farming in vegetable cultivation due to their: moderate to higher efficacy Lower toxicity for natural enemies Minimum adverse impact on human health Safer to the environment

moderate to high yield potentiality Further Scope-- Chemical Analysis of plant parts NOVEL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES Phytosol (fluorinated solvent) extraction Super-critical fluid extraction with CO2 Pressurized Solvent extraction HPCCC or centrifugal Column chromatography Microwave assisted Extraction Sonicated extraction Accelerated solvent extraction Bioassay Guided Extraction & Isolation Plant material

Separation of CC/Prep HPLC Active ingredient Compound 1 Most active Structure elucidation Compound 2 Compound 3 Chemical modification of lead molecule

Product High-Tech ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED HP-TLC Gas chromatography (GC) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Mass spectroscopy (MS) GC-MS, GC-MS-MS HPLC-MS, HPLC-MS-MS NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) Structure Identification of Chemicals Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

NMR (900 M HZ) spectroscopy Acquired Proton NMR spectrurm

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