SECURITY IN SMART GRIDS By: Abdullah Almurayh CS691

SECURITY IN SMART GRIDS By: Abdullah Almurayh CS691

SECURITY IN SMART GRIDS By: Abdullah Almurayh CS691 Summer 2011 University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Outline Introduction

to Smart Grid Smart Grid Architecture Smart Grid Communications Controller Area Network Home Automation Smart Grid Security Conclusion 2 Almurayh/CS691/Home Security The Electricity Crisis Population

of Electric devices has grown More Electricity demanding Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/201 The Electricity Crisis Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/201 The Electricity Crisis

2009 5 Almurayh/CS691/Home Security The Smart Grid Smart grid is an electrical grid that intelligently predicts and responds to the behaviors of electric power users So, it efficiently delivers reliable, economic, and

maintainable electricity services. Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/201 The Smart Grid Revelation Future Challenge Intelligence Economic Efficiency World Connectivity

People Interactivity More Opportunity and choices Living Improvement More Greening Security Enhancement! Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/201 Smart Grids Achievement Three important components needed: Governments

Companies: Utilities Companies and Vendors Customers: Owners, Residents. Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/201 Convincing about Smart Grid Governments need to be convinced about implementing Smart Grids in their countries. Utilities Companies need to be required to implement Smart Grids in their services. Consumers need to be convinced to involve in

smart grids and allow for more privileges. convinced through: Education [ Schools, Universities] Media [ TV, Radio, Papers, Internet] Scientists [ inventions, conferences, statistics] Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/201 Smart Grid in the US

Key: red=electricity, green=gas, blue=water, triangle=trial , circle=project AMR: Automatic Meter Reading AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure 2009 Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Advanced Metering devices AMR: Automatic Meter Reading

A technology for automatically collecting real-time consumption and status data from metering devices Meter Reader: collects meter readings from an AMR. "walk-by or "drive-by" mobile meter reading Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Advanced Metering devices AMI: Advanced Metering Infrastructure

A device for a utility or the customer to monitor and control energy usage. It transmits data on energy use back to the utility instead of driving by and reading. Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Smart Grid Focus

Xcel Energy has started Smart Grid trial projects to transform Boulder, Colorado into Smart Grid city. When completed, Boulder will be the first Smart City in the world. The Xcel pilot builds on the following technology options: option 1: "Smart plugs" that allows customers to control their appliances remotely. option 2: Xcel turns down power to household appliances when power peaks. option 3: Xcel runs appliances when more energy is being produced by alternative sources.

Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Key developments Almost every utility in the US has some of Smart Grid focus or project going on . All major Tech US companies including IBM (Smart Planet), Cisco(Smart Grid products), GE (ecomagination), Google (PowerMeter), Microsoft(Hohm), Itron, Accenture have strong Smart Grid focus

National Institute of Science and Technology, IEEE, Department of Energy are actively collaborating with the stakeholders to set up Smart Grid standards More than 10 Smart Grid organization (GridWise Architecture, GridWise Alliance, ZigBee Alliance, Smart Grid Consumer Coalition) have been established and are actively following Smart Grid related development. Smart Grid Clearing house and www.smartgrid.gov provide comprehensive

information about smart grid The US and 15 other countries have launched International Smart Grid Action Network for global smart grid collaboration. Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Smart Grids Conceptual Model Almurayh/CS691/Home Security

7/27/2 Multi-Tier Smart Grid Architecture Smart Grids consists of Multi-Tier Network: WAN (distribution) Miles NAN (metering) Meters HAN (consumer) Yards Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Multi-Tier Smart Grid Architecture Almurayh/CS691/Home Security

7/27/2 Multi-Tier Smart Grid Architecture Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Consumer invests power in Smart Grids Save money & make Money Home Power Generating

Powe r Rout er Smart Grid Power Storage Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Relationship in Smart Grids No

master-slave relationship Pairing relationship. ( I need things from you and you need things from me) Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Controller Area Network

Allows smart devices to communicate Developed in the automotive industry as an invehicle In 1993, CAN became the international standard known as ISO 11898 Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Controller Area Network Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2

Controller Area Network Communications Protocols in CAN: wireless networks IEEE 802 specifications low-cost low power characteristics low rate radio waves that easily travel through walls targets smart grid applications [smart meters, home appliances, computers, video game consoles, smartphones, or digital audio players and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles .] Examples: ZigBee

Wi-Fi Z-Wave Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Home Automation in Smart Grid Meters ( electric, gas, and water ) Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Home Automation in Smart Grid

A consumers can remotely monitor and control his home energy. Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Home Automation in Smart Grid Old appliance! Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Home Automation in Smart Grid

Smart Plug: allows control of appliances and lighting based on Demand Response and Price events. Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Security attacks in Smart Grid Large-scale attack [Core network] Small-scale attack [ HAN, CAN] Current Risk of Attack through Smart Grid

Technology Attackers may use entry points physically unprotected. Wireless networks can be easily monitored by attackers. Wireless networks may be vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle

attacks. There may be weaknesses in preventing unauthorized communication. Vulnerable appliances can be easily attacked and compromised to attack other appliances or smart grids Vulnerabilities exist, not discovered yet. No significant risks at this time, but the risk grows as the deployment of smart grids grows . Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Attack Methodologies A: Physical attack:

exists when a criminal physically attacks home security Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Attack Methodologies B: Cyber-attack: exists when accessible information gets attacked causing a compromise to the home controller or appliances Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2

Conclusion Smart Grid becomes an ideal solution to provide efficiently and intelligently more electricity Home controller enables home automation, a customer can remotely control his appliances. CAN Gateway opens NAN and CAN to the internet.

Home automation increases Home security requirements . Home security and Smart Grid risks grow as their deployment grows . Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 Questions

Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2 References [1] D. G. Hart, "Using AMI to Realize the Smart Grid," in Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, IEEE, Pittsburgh, PA, 2008. [2] J. A. Momoh, "Smart Grid Design for Efficient and Flexible Power Networks Operation and Control," in Power Systems Conference and Exposition, 2009. PSCE '09. IEEE/PES , Seattle, WA , April 2009 . [3] Nedap, "PowerRouter," Nedap N.V. , [Online]. Available: http://www.powerrouter.com. [Accessed July 2011]. [4] T. NETWORKS, "Networking the Smart Grid," 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.tropos.com/pdf/whitepapers/SmartGridWP_A7.pdf. [5] E. P. R. I. Inc, "Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)," 2007 . [Online]. Available: http://www.ferc.gov/eventcalendar/Files/20070423091846-EPRI%20-%20Advanced%20Metering.pdf.

[6] J. Yoshida, "NXP's foray into 'Internet of things' starts with light bulbs," 18 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.techonlineindia.com/article/11-05-18/NXP_s_foray_into_Internet_of_things_starts_with_light_bulbs.aspx. [7] ZigBee, "ZigBee Alliance," ZigBee, [Online]. Available: http://www.zigbee.org/. [Accessed 10 July 2011]. [8] Wi-Fi, "Wi-Fi Alliance," Wi-Fi, [Online]. Available: http://www.wi-fi.org/. [Accessed 10 July 2011]. [9] Z-wave, "Z-Wave Alliance," [Online]. Available: http://www.z-wave.com/modules/ZwaveStart/. [Accessed 10 July 2011]. [10] Z. Wang, Z. Liu and L. Shi, "The smart home controller based on zigbee," in Mechanical and Electronics Engineering (ICMEE), 2010 2nd International Conference on , Shanghai, China, Aug. 2010 . [11] O. Yang-Xin, J. Hong, L. Yang and S. Chun-Yan, "Research on smart appliances control protocol," in 2010 Second International Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science, IEEE, 2010, 2010. [12] A. Schmidt and K. van Laerhoven, "How to build smart appliances?," in Personal Communications, IEEE , August 2001. [13]http://www.ti.com/ww/en/smart_grid_solutions/smart_grid_home_automation.htm# [14] http://www.trilliantinc.com/solutions/multi-tier-architecture/ [15]http://www.xcelenergy.com/About_Us/Energy_News/News_Archive/

Xcel_Energy_displays_first_fully_integrated_SmartGridCity%E2%84%A2_house_in_Boulder [16] http://industrial-embedded.com/wi-fi-u-snap-smart-grid-adoption-homes#ixzz1RuUhZTec [17] http://csus-dspace.calstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10211.9/849/Masters%20Project%20-%20Adithya %20Shreyas_Final.pdf [18] http://www.inl.gov/scada/publications/d/securing_the_smart_grid_current_issues.pdf [19] http://www.nationalgridus.com/niagaramohawk/non_html/eff_elec-demand.pdf Almurayh/CS691/Home Security 7/27/2

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