Adaptive Book: A Platform for teaching, learning and

Adaptive Book: A Platform for teaching, learning and

Adaptive Book: A Platform for teaching, learning and student modeling Ananda Gunawardena School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University & Vince DeStasio CIO and Associate Professor in Chemistry Grove City College Pennsylvania Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Outline

Introduction What is Adaptive Book? Adaptive Book Authoring Tools Just in time learning modules Adaptive Markup Repository Assessment of Student Reading Pilot Results

Future Work Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Adaptive Book Project Tablet PC is an ideal platform for electronic textbooks Ability to use the pen to annotate, highlight and share markups Online textbooks cannot be Just the pdf versions of their printed versions Flexible but Limited use Cheap but hard to read Our efforts is to design the textbook of the future Microsoft Faculty Research Sum

mit 2007 Introduction Effective teaching is not confined to the classroomit is successful when it enhances interest and generates thinking beyond the classroom setting. A great deal of customization and personalization of the content is needed to generate the interest Adaptive Book is a platform for customization, personalization and understanding of student behavior Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Adaptive Book A software platform developed in C# / .net Developed by TextCentric,Inc (CMU Spin-off) Research Base at Carnegie Mellon Usability (Human Computer Interaction) Adaptive (Machine Learning) Adaptive Book User Interface Navigation, search, markup tools (highlighting, annotating, and linking), book marking Labeling, archiving and searching markups Adaptive Book combines textbook content with all other related material Microsoft Faculty Research Sum

mit 2007 Adaptive Book UI Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Survey Slide 1 What do you think the students initial reaction to Adaptive Book was? A) They remained skeptical B) They embraced it whole-heartedly and could immediately see the benefit C) They liked the idea, but it had too many "kinks" to be immediately useful D) All of the above

E) none of the above Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Creating an Adaptive Book Adaptive Book is a thin client program Any SCORM/IMS content package can be imported into Adaptive Book A content authoring tool creates these content packages. In other words anyone can create an Adaptive Book package using their own content and/or textbook chapters Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Publisher content Rights and Royalty Management Adaptive Book professor Microsoft Faculty Research Sum Instructor content mit 2007 Adaptive Book Authoring Tool Uses a HTML/XML content repository to find chapters of the book and supplements Each chapter of the book is tagged as a Sharable Content Object (SCO)

Uses a simple drag and drop menu to select the chapters and supplements needed to create the custom book Program generates the table of content and package the book as a SCO Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Importing a SCO Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Survey Slide 2 Do you think combining textbook chapters with your own material is a useful way to

package a course A) Strongly Agree B) Agree C) Neutral D) Disagree E) Strongly Disagree Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Markup Concept Research shows marking up a text while reading enhances the learning Markup is defined as a semantically related set of objects consists of highlights, annotations and web links. Markups automatically generate its own metadata as well as anyone can add other metadata to markups

before saving Markups are stored in a searchable repository. Search and find markups related to a certain concept What is the best markup to learn topic A? A search algorithm specifically designed to find related markups Assign Rights to markups Private, public, protected Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Sample Markup Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Students Sign up for Markup Services Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Students can create buddy groups Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Students Define their buddy group or Who has the access to their markups

Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Mark-up List Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Assigning Rights to Markups Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Reading a markup

Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Survey Slide 3 If you have the ability to markup the textbook and related material, how would you use the feature A) I would use it to make notes for myself B) I would markup the text and send it to students before class C) I would markup the text as an answer to a frequently asked question and share D) I would create a repository of reusable markups that addresses various concepts E) I would encourage students to markup the text as they read the book F) I do not find this feature useful

F) Other Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Just in time Learning Modules Markups are important learning tools Students learn better from marked up text Worksheets to reading the book This is a compromise Instructors can create just in time learning modules using markup tools Select content, highlight, place sticky notes and URLs and package them as a markup object Save the markup to a customized learning objects (CLO) repository

Others can search and find the markup, disassemble and customize to their needs Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 A Just-in-time learning module with highlights, and digital ink notes Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 More on Markups Markups with learning paths can be created by individual instructors Search and find the Markup, and import to Adaptive Book

Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Learning Objects Repository Three types of learning objects stored in the repository Book Chapters that can be used to build a custom book Individual markups packaged as IMS/SCORM with access rights Customized Learning Objects (CLOs) that can be retrieved and modified using Adaptive Book Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Modeling Student Behavior One of the focuses of our research Do students read the book and other notes? If so, what do they read? not pages, what specific content? How do they construct knowledge? Does the Tablet PC help students move from informal sketching to formalization? What can we do to capture that? Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Modeling Student Behavior

If we are successful in capturing an accurate assessment of student thinking, what can we do with that data? Our pilots involve constructing activities that requires the student to show specific things in the textbook and notes that they found useful Student markup is then compared to an expert markup Our preliminary data show some interesting correlation between student performance and their perception of what was important in completing the assignment More work is needed to accurately model student behavior This is ongoing research Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Pilot Results

We have used Adaptive Book and markup repository with several institutions and middle schools Many positive Student Comments but lot needs to be done Interesting results on what students read Sample comments Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Some Student Comments I like the ability to find a relevant markup that can help solve some of the programming problems It is nice to receive markups from the instructor before the lecture Good thing about the Adaptive Book is that

instructor can create a markup linking textbook concepts and relevant programming examples receiving an answer to a FAQ as a markup is a very useful feature Adaptive Book search feature needs improvements Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Future Work More focus on the impact of Tablet PC and Adaptive Book Technology Making Adaptive Book a research platform for modeling student behavior Creating a dynamic sketch environment for conceptual understanding and

automatic code generation Informal to formal stages of learning Better markup analysis and classification Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Ink-based Technology Fundamental Questions Do ink-based technologies improve teaching and learning? What are the differences and similarities with standard PCbased technology in education? How do ink-based technologies compare/compete with paper? Two promises Better document management Electronic repositories Sketch recognition

Smart paper Real time feedback on ink Perhaps a better platform for interacting with electronic documents ebooks, note taking etc.. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Carnegie Mellon Projects HP Technology for Teaching Grant 2004 21 HP 1100 Tablet PCs Other equipment HP Technology for Teaching Leadership grant - 2005 42 HP 4200 Tablet PCs Other equipment

Qatar Foundation Grant - 2005 25 HP 4200 Tablet PCs and Research funding Microsoft Research Grant - 2006 $150,000 funding for a 2-year impact study With Grove City College Tablet PC program Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching Award 2004 2004-2005 study of the integration of Tablet PCs 38 Computer Science Freshman participated in

the study Students owned the tablet PC for the duration of the pilot (typically one semester) 85% of the CMU students who participated in the pilot owned laptops 60% of the students used tablet PC as their primary machine Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching Award 2004 Ink-based Software used Adaptive Book Technology (CMU-TextCentric)

MS Windows Journal Primary activities Reading and annotating the book Creating and saving worksheets Sharing worksheets using a repository Motivation CMU bought 1 Tablets PC that was raffled at the end of the semester Those who contributed to the ink-based worksheet repository received extra coupons for the raffle. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching Award 2004 Research Findings

38 students surveyed 60% of the students used Tablet as their primary device We used a control group of 20 students who did not have tablet PCs taught by the same professor (Don Slater), same introductory programming course Final analysis showed slight improvement in grades in the Tablet group. But not statistically significant to draw conclusions 85% of the students liked the idea of electronic note taking Easy organization, storage and retrieval 45% of the students would consider buying a tablet PC, next time they shop for a PC Smaller screen and performance were cited as reasons for not buying a tablet Microsoft Faculty Research Sum

mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching Leadership Award 2005-2006 42 HP Tablet PCs Target Group Sophomore/Junior students taking data structures and algorithm courses Initial survey done to select 35 students with varied criteria's Major and GPA Ownership of PC General attitude towards electronic material

Control group is 40 students who were not selected or did not want to participate Macs, unix owners etc. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching Leadership Award 2005-2006 Ink based Software tools Adaptive Book with Markup analysis tools Classroom presenter Windows journal

Data structure visualizer Customization of MIT Physics illustrator project Status of the project Ongoing Preliminary survey data available Student markup analysis data available Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching Leadership Award 2005-2006 Support tools

Configured with CMUs wireless cluster network All Tablets belong to a virtual cluster network Pilot study in understanding use of mobile devices as computer cluster machines (Gates building) Automated configurations Network isolation Software access privileges Automated backup scripts All related journal notes collected for analysis Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 HP Technology for Teaching

Leadership Award 2005-2006 Research Activities Pre-lecture markup Post-lecture markup Automated analysis of markups With an expert as well as with community Various data mining techniques employed Research Question What is the impact of pen-based technology in learning? Ink versus paper More reading and markup activity Electronic note taking Methods Surveys of users and non-users of tablet technology

Analysis of pre and post lecture markup activities Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Qatar Foundation Grant 2005 25 HP Tablet PCs at CMU-Qatar campus in Education City Entire CS sophomore class had the tablets Observations Immediate acceptance of the technology Only 1 out of 20 students took paper notes Had a hard time getting the machines back at the end of the year

Students used electronic note taking in all classes Classroom presenter used to create interaction Send/receive annotations professor-students Great for middle east Adaptive Book was used to increase Textbook reading and interaction Reading comprehension Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Qatar Foundation Grant 2005 Informal Study Results Potential benefits Teaching Ink grading and archiving of homework Archiving of all classwork

Pittsburgh TAs used/uses IM tools with ink Learning Use of classroom presenter tool Ability to annotate English textbooks in Arabic Improving reading comprehension Results Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Microsoft Research 2-year assessment study 2006-2008 Collaborative project Carnegie Mellon University Grove City College Research subjects from Grove City College 2400 HP 4200 Tablet PCs Data from over 1200 students Wide range of disciplines CS, Economics, English, Business Software Adaptive Book (unlimited licenses) DyKnow vision (600 licenses per year)

Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Other related Projects Ellis School 8th Grade Geometry project Adaptive Book (CMU/TCI) Geometers sketch pad (Key Press) Classroom presenter (UW) references

Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 What is the future of textbooks Textbook is an integral component of a course It often gives a different viewpoint with more details Extra examples, problems and solutions It is one place students can find answers to most of the questions However, future of textbooks are threatened by online content Wikipedias Googles Microsoft Faculty Research Sum

mit 2007 What is the future of textbooks? It is clear that use of online content by students are growing It is also clear that textbooks demand is going down Publishers increase the price Create extra online content and sell the book even higher prices Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Electronic Books At Carnegie Mellon we are designing the future

textbook using Human Computer Interaction principles We see textbook of the future as a platform We focus on three things Usability Adaptability Community Online textbooks can be extremely useful and much superior to its printed version, when all three conditions are met Tablet PCs and new fonts make reading much closer to the experience of reading a printed book Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Usability

Markup tools Highlights Short notes Digital Review Sheets Navigation and Search tools Search by keyword Search by concepts Search by markups Multiple Views Typical textbook view Question view Concept view Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Adaptability How good is my markup? How do I know I am reading what I am supposed to read? Answer: Use the markup analysis tool Create a markup Submit (or synchronize with) to a website Compare to an expert markup Compare to a community markup Lots of applications Measuring the reading comprehension Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Community Electronic textbooks are platforms. Find out exactly what other people are reading Comment about content online Find community markups to help study Classify markups Private Protected public Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Security of Content Digital Rights Management Publishers biggest worry

Tablet PCs and other ink based devices can help establish the authenticity of the user Digital ink signatures Early research Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Dean Adaptive Book The Thin Client 1. Content

Textbooks 2. Professors Lesson Plan Professor monitor individual students progress. Professor Case Studies 4. Professor ask questions, make assignments. 3. Professor mark up Content Research 3a.Definitions

Mark-ups VPN* 3b. Important Professor uses highlighter pen for develop learning paths (Mark-ups), Student Student Student Student Student

Sticky Notes 3c. Concepts Assignments 3d. Key Words *Virtual Private Network 6. Students Read Content (dont see highlighted text) 7. Students learn Content with AB Self-paced remediation without reprisal! 8. Students are Tested

Test Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Case Study CMU Computer Science 17 Students Fall Semester 2006 Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 The Ellis Survey 7 Actual Users

Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 The Ellis School Survey: HP Tablet PC with Adaptive Book Thin Client 6 Students 37 Questions and 214 or 96% AB Features 24% HP Tablet 19% Text Books 19%

Markups 38% Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 The Survey 37 Questions Ellis Student Survey 1= Not Important and 5 = Very 5.0 1. The Tablet PC is a Notebook PC and More 4.5

Average Score 4.0 3. Extends use 3.5 36. Using Digital Books 3.0 2.5 2. Highlight text 2.0

1.5 35. Sharing Markups 1.0 0.5 37. The lease important feature, the ability to change the text font size. - Survey Questions Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Adaptive Book & Tablet Math Whiz Ananda Gunawardena School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 group Adaptive book remediate Markup

Tablet Math Whiz pretest repository certified Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 professor Adaptive Book

A software platform developed in C# / .net Developed by TextCentric,Inc (CMU Spin-off) Research Base at Carnegie Mellon Usability (Human Computer Interaction) Adaptive (Machine Learning) Adaptive Book User Interface Navigation, search, markup tools (highlighting, annotating, and linking), book marking Labeling, archiving and searching markups AB combines textbook content with all other related material Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

Adaptive Book UI Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Creating an Adaptive Book Adaptive Book is a thin client program Any SCORM/IMS content package can be imported into Adaptive Book An authoring tool creates these content packages. Instructors create their custom Adaptive Book Anyone can create an Adaptive Book package using their own content and/or textbook chapters Microsoft Faculty Research Sum

mit 2007 Importing a SCO Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Markup Concept Markup is a semantically related set of objects consists of highlights, annotations and web links. Markups automatically generate its own metadata as well as anyone can add other metadata to markups before saving Markups are stored in a searchable repository. Search and find markups related to a certain concept What is the best markup to learn topic A?

Google type search engine Assign Rights to markups Private, public, protected Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Sample Markup Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Submit your Markup Microsoft Faculty Research Sum

mit 2007 Get your markup Graded Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Questions: [email protected] Thank You Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Ananda Gunawardena, Carnegie Mellon University, CS Department John Barr , CMU-Qatar & Ithaca College

Current Collaborators: Microsoft Faculty Andrew Owens (Cornell) Jay Heo, Dan Horbatt & Chantelle Humphreys(CMU) mit 2007 Research Partially supported by: Qatar Foundation, Microsoft, HP,CMU Research Sum Background My semester in Qatar Teaching Data Structures and Algorithms Regular Challenges in the course

Challenging concepts Broad curriculum Highly Technical Large programming assignments Qatar Challenges Student readiness to accept 15-211 English reading difficulties Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Assignments Frequent Reading and Writing assignments

Technology Framework Tablet PCs Adaptive Book Process Reading Strategies Reading Comprehension Implementation Fall 2005 Ananda Gunawardena Fall 2006 John Barr Fall 2007 Bob Monroe Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Put more emphasis on reading in the course

Reading assignments based on concepts or problem sets Coordinating with Reading Strategies Pre-Lecture(submit once before the lecture) Post-Lecture (after lecture) Ask the student to create a markup Compare with instructor markup Similarity score Improve the markup iteratively Meet a reading threshold Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Sample Reading Assignments

BST Graphs Hashing Sorting Heaps Demo

How to setup the assignment How to submit an expert markup How do students read in the course Marking up what they read Submitting so they can get a score Iteratively improving the score Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Observations Using reading as part of the course English speaking abilities vary among Qatari

students reading technical texts in English is difficult very resistant to being forced to read Initially didn't like their reading being evaluated. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Changing the perception changes about using a book By the end of the course good students felt that reading helped them. The initial reaction seems to have been partly a result of a fear that they couldn't do the reading adequately. By the end of the course, they realized that they had opportunities to improve their reading score, had figured out how to do the reading correctly

realized that doing the reading helped them in other parts of the course. Not ALL students felt this way. The better students, who were more careful about doing the readings, in general had more positive responses than poor students who saw the reading assignments as chores. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Specific challenges in reading technical material Acceptable general reading skills poor technical English skills. This makes reading time consuming. students may read, highlight, and outline material and not really understand it.

Combine reading assignments with questions that force students to act on the material that they've read. This reinforces the material in the student's mind, forces them to think about what they've read, and helps make the book material concrete. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 The role of the instructor in encouraging students to read in technical courses Students in Qatar will, for the most part, not read without direct intervention of the instructor. They would much rather use powerpoint slides, lecture notes, and one-on-one conversations with the instructor in office hours to learn the material. We found that only when the reading was tested in

some manner students would do the readings. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Role of reading in technical courses Technical courses, especially in computer science, consist of important concepts, theories, and arcane programming details. It is relatively easy to convey concepts, theories, and broad programming principles in class. It is hard to discuss details unless students already have a high-level grasp of the material. Under these circumstances, reading plays three parts in technical courses. students need a source where they can gain at least an overview of the material before class. Forcing them to read the relevant material before coming to class In Qatar, students primarily rely on class notes and powerpoint slides. But textbooks can provide a much richer resource for review. The last role of reading is provide a source for the details that were not covered in

class. In this sense, books provide a reference. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 How best to integrate reading assignments into CS courses Readings should be made part of the course Students must be forced to read relevant material before class. This can be done by requiring them to submit markups or by short in-class quizes. This ensures that students are somewhat familiar with the material before class begins. It's also useful to have students redo their reading after class. This will encourage them to look to the textbook when reviewing the material instead ofthe class lecture notes or slides.

Require students to submit a markup before class. They could be allowed to only submit one markup, no revisions. Then after the class, they could be allowed to submit revisions. Their final grade on the markup would be some combination of the initial and final submissions. Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Results 100.00% Average Markup Score 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00%

Final Weighted Grade NOTE you absolutely MUST account for the fact that the students' markup grades are somehow factored into the final course grade. This biases the results! 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 120.00% 100.00% 80.00% Average Markup Score 60.00% Total Homework Score

40.00% 20.00% 0.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 Average of Best Scores for Each Assignment 120 100 Score 80 Average of Best Scores for Each Assignment

60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 Submissions Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% Average of Best Markup Score on Each Assignment 60.00% 50.00% Final Weighted Grade (excluding their scores for completing markups)

40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% Average of Best Markup

Score on Each Assignment 60.00% 50.00% Total Homework Score 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Microsoft Faculty Research Sum mit 2007

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