Recommendations on Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older

Recommendations on Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older

Recommendations on Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults 2015 Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) Putting Prevention into Practice Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Groupe dtude canadien sur les soins de sant prventifs WebEx How can I participate today? Audio option- you can ask questions and participate directly in the discussion by unmuting your audio. Mute or unmute your audio on your phone or by clicking on the microphone next to your name in the participant list. 2 WebEx How can I participate today?

Chat Box option- you can also type your questions or comments into the chat box. 1. You can send comments to everyone 2. You can send comments directly to the KT moderator (to read to the group) or to individual participants 3 Use of slide deck These slides are made available publicly as an educational support to assist with the dissemination, uptake and implementation of the guidelines into primary care practice. Some or all of the slides in this slide deck may be used in educational contexts. The Screening for Cognitive Impairment Guideline was published online November 2015.

4 Cognitive Impairment Working Group CTFPHC Members: Kevin Pottie (Chair) Richard Birtwhistle Marcello Tonelli Maria Bacchus Neil Bell Ainsley Moore* Alejandra Jaramillo* Evidence Review and Synthesis Centre: Donna Fitzpatrick-Lewis* Rachel Warren* *non-voting member

Public Health Agency: 5 Overview of Presentation Background on Cognitive Impairment Methods of the CTFPHC Recommendations and Key Findings Implementation of Recommendations Conclusions Questions and Answers 6 Screening for Cognitive Impairment BACKGROUND 7

Background Cognitive impairment occurs on a continuum that includes aging related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia Studies from the United States have reported prevalence of MCI ranging from 9.9% to 35.2% for adults aged 70 or older The incidence of dementia in Canadian adults aged 65 to 79 years is 43 per 1000 persons and rises with age (to 212 per 1000 in Canadians aged 85 and older) Available treatments for cognitive impairment include medications (e.g., cholinesterase inhibitors), dietary supplements/vitamins and non-pharmacological interventions 8 Screening Tools for Cognitive Impairment Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) A 30-point questionnaire available with a fee ($68.00 US for 50 test forms) Scored out of 30, cut-point varies based on age and education level: Cognitive impairment = below 23

Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) A free, quick test that assesses different cognitive domains Scored out of 30 and provides interpretive guidance as follows: Mild cognitive impairment = between 18-26 Moderate cognitive impairment = between 10-17 Severe impairment = less than 10 Alzheimers Disease Assessment Scale cognition subscale (ADAS-Cog) Often used in clinical trials, consists of 11 tasks measuring disturbances of memory, language, praxis, attention and other cognitive abilities Takes up to 45 minutes to conduct 9 Cognitive Impairment 2015 Guidelines This guideline provides recommendations for practitioners on preventive health screening in a primary care setting: This guideline applies to screening asymptomatic community dwelling adults 65 years for cognitive impairment

This guideline does not apply to men and women who: Are concerned about their cognitive performance Are suspected of having cognitive impairment by clinicians, family or friends. Have symptoms suggestive of cognitive impairment E.g., loss of memory, language, attention, visuospatial, or executive functioning, or behavioural or psychological symptoms 10 Screening for Cognitive Impairment METHODS 11 Methods of the CTFPHC Independent panel of: Clinicians and methodologists Expertise in prevention, primary care, literature synthesis, and

critical appraisal Application of evidence to practice and policy Cognitive Impairment Working Group 6 Task Force members Establish research questions and analytical framework 12 Methods of the CTFPHC Evidence Review and Synthesis Centre (ERSC) Undertakes a systematic review of the literature based on the analytical framework Prepares a systematic review of the evidence with GRADE tables Participates in working group and task force meetings Obtain expert opinions 13 CTFPHC Review Process

Internal review process involving guideline working group, Task Force, scientific officers and ERSC staff External review process involving key stakeholders Generalist and disease specific stakeholders Federal and P/T stakeholders CMAJ undertakes an independent peer review journal process to review guidelines 14 Research Questions The systematic review for screening for cognitive impairment included: (2) key research question with (0) sub-questions (4) supplemental or contextual questions The systematic review for the treatment of cognitive impairment included: (6) key research question with (4) sub-questions (6) supplemental or contextual questions

For more detailed information please access the systematic review www.canadiantaskforce.ca 15 Analytical Framework: Screening 1 Community dwelling adults 65 years without a current diagnosis of cognitive impairment No MCI or Dementia

Treatment outcomes: Screening 2, 6 3 MCI Treatment 4 5 Dementia unwanted or unexpected direction of effect on health outcomes, psychological harms, harms due to labeling, poor adherence to diagnostic follow up cognition; function;

behavior; global status; mortality Serious adverse events (hospitalization; death); psychosocial harms Screening outcomes: Patient outcomes: Function/QOL Utilization Safety Family/Caregiver Outcomes: QOL Caregiver Burden Societal Outcomes:

Safety 16 Eligible Study Types Population: community dwelling older adults (65 years of age) who do not have symptoms suggestive of cognitive impairment (such as loss of memory, language, attention, visuospatial, or executive functioning, or behavioural or psychological symptoms) and who are not suspected of having cognitive impairment by clinicians or nonclinicians such as family or friends. Language: English, French Study type: Randomized control trials (RCTs) with at least 6 months of follow-up data from baseline Outcomes: patient important outcomes and the scales used to measure such outcomes were based on those selected and prioritized by Canadian clinicians and policymakers 17 How is Evidence Graded? The GRADE System:

Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development & Evaluation What are we grading? 1. Quality of Evidence Degree of confidence that the available evidence correctly reflects the theoretical true effect of the intervention or service. high, moderate, low, very low 2. Strength of Recommendation the balance between desirable and undesirable effects; the variability or uncertainty in values and preferences of citizens; and whether or not the intervention represents a wise use of resources. strong and weak 18 How is the Strength of Recommendations Determined? The strength of the recommendations (strong or weak) are based on four factors:

Quality of supporting evidence Certainty about the balance between desirable and undesirable effects Certainty / variability in values and preferences of individuals Certainty about whether the intervention represents a wise use of resources 19

Interpretation of Recommendations Implications Strong Recommendation Weak Recommendations For patients Most individuals would want the recommended course of action; only a small proportion would not. The majority of individuals in this situation would want the suggested course of action but many would not.

For clinicians Most individuals should receive the intervention. Recognize that different choices will be appropriate for individual patients; Clinicians must help patients make management decisions consistent with values and preferences. For policy makers The recommendation can be adapted as policy in most situations. Policy making will require

substantial debate and involvement of various stakeholders. 20 Screening for Cognitive Impairment RECOMMENDATIONS & KEY FINDINGS 21 Screening For Cognitive Impairment Recommendation: We recommend not screening asymptomatic adults (65 years of age) for cognitive impairment Strong recommendation; low quality evidence Basis of the recommendation: The findings of the evidence review highlight: The lack of high quality studies evaluating the benefits and harms of screening for cognitive impairment;

The lack of effective treatment for mild cognitive impairment The effect of treatment on MCI was measured as most pathology detected would likely be MCI when screening for cognitive impairment in asymptomatic populations 22 Efficacy of Screening Tools The likelihood of a false positive result from the most common screening tools are as follows: MMSE: 10% to 14% when screening for dementia 13% when screening for MCI MoCA 25% when screening for MCI ADAS-Cog Diagnostic accuracy was not reported as this tool is not used

in primary care settings, but for research purposes 23 Benefits of Treatment for MCI on Cognition: Effect measured with ADAS-Cog Treatment Intervention Effect Mean Difference (95% CI) No. Participants Treatment No. Participants Control No. Studies

Quality AChEIs -0.33 (-0.73 to 0.06)* 2078 2110 4 Low Donepezil -0.60 (-1.35 to 0.15)* 632

637 2 Low Rivastigmine 0 (-0.7987 to 0.7987)* 508 510 1 Low Galantamine

-0.21 (-0.80 to 0.38)* 938 963 1 Low Dietary Supplements 0.85 (-0.32 to 2.02)* 257 259

1 Low Non-pharma -0.60 (-1.44 to 0.24)* 47 45 1 Moderate *Not statistically significant Note: Negative and positive effects are outcome measure dependent A decrease in score (negative values) indicates and improvement

24 Benefits of Treatment for MCI on Cognition: Effect measured with MMSE Treatment Intervention Effect Mean Difference (95% CI) No. Participants Treatment No. Participants Control No. Studies

Quality AChEIs 0.17 (-0.13 to 0.47)* 1140 1147 3 Low Donepezil 0.24 (-0.19 to 0.66)* 632

637 2 Low Rivastigmine 0.10 (-0.32 to 0.52)* 508 510 1 Low Dietary Supplement

s 0.20 (-0.04 to 0.43)* 511 519 4 Low Non-pharma 1.01 (0.25 to 1.77) 221 187

1 Moderate *Not statistically significant Note: Negative and positive effects are outcome measure dependent An increase in score (positive values) indicates and improvement 25 Harms and Benefits for Screening and Treatment No high quality studies evaluating the harms and benefits of screening for cognitive impairment No evidence demonstrating clinically meaningful benefits of treatment of mild cognitive impairment Possible harms related to screening include: False positives that could result from the MoCA or MMSE The cost of conducting unnecessary medical care

Opportunity cost lost because practitioners could spend their time instead on interventions that have been proven to be effective 26 Comparison of Screening for Cognitive Impairment Recommendations Our recommendations on screening are consistent with those of other international guideline groups who recommend to not screen for cognitive impairment in asymptomatic adults: NICE (2011) BC Ministry of Health (2014) USPSTF (2014) 27 Screening for Cognitive Impairment IMPLEMENTATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS

28 Values and Preferences Limited evidence available: one international study examined the willingness to be screened among first-degree relatives of persons with Alzheimers disease 32% were willing to be screening within the next year, 42% during the next 5 years Willingness mainly related to obtaining help to prepare for the future Factors that influenced participants willingness to be screened included: Planning for future treatments and planning for their life Dealing with the problem if there was one Cost of evaluation and time 29

Knowledge Translation Tools The CTFPHC creates KT tools to support the implementation of guidelines into clinical practice A clinician FAQ has been developed for the cognitive impairment guideline After the public release, these tools will be freely available for download in both French and English on the website: www.canadiantaskforce.ca 30 Screening for Cognitive Impairment CONCLUSIONS 31 Conclusions The CTFPHC recommends physicians to remain alert when patient, family members, or caregivers express concern about

possible cognitive impairment and undertake appropriate diagnostic inquiry as warranted There is a lack of direct evidence concerning the benefits of screening for cognitive impairment in asymptomatic adults There is an absence of effective treatments for mild cognitive impairment Improved screening tools for mild cognitive impairment are needed. Available screening tools for mild cognitive impairment may incorrectly classify individuals as positive 32 Update: CTFPHC Mobile App Now Available The app contains guideline and recommendation summaries, knowledge translation tools, and links to additional resources. Key features include the ability

to bookmark sections for easy access, display content in either English or French, and change the font size of text. 33 Update: CTFPHC on Social Media The CTFPHC is venturing into social media! A Twitter policy and strategy is currently being developed CTFPHC Twitter is expected to be released late 2015/early 2016 Please check the CTFPHC website for updates: http://canadiantaskforce.ca/ 34 More Information For more information on the details of this guideline

please see: Canadian Task Force for Preventive Health Care website: http://canadiantaskforce.ca/?content=pcp 35 Questions & Answers Thank you 36

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