Kaposi's Sarcoma Kaposi's sarcoma is a classic opportunistic infection which is only seen in AIDS patients in the U.S. Caused by Kaposi's Sarcoma herpesvirus OR Human Herpes Virus-8.
HIV Classification Family: Retroviridae Genus : lentiviruses Cytopathic retroviruses Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-2) Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Transforming retroviruses.
Human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 can cause T cell leukemia. HIV Classification HIV-1 and HIV-2 (50% homology) cause similar immunodeficiency disease in humans. HIV-1 found in 80% of cases in the world. HIV-1 is broken up into "clades".
Chimpanzee Green Monkey Pan troglodytes Sooty mangabey Worldwide HIV Infections
Worldwide HIV Infections 42 millions of infected 5 millions contaminated in 2003 3 millions died 14000 infected per day 29 millions in Africa 10 millions between 15-24 years old 1/50 have access to a treatment 1% of pregnant women are treated 5 millions contaminated in 2003
3 millions died HIV Structure Enveloped RNA virus Feb, 1983 HIV Genome
env gene encodes envelope glycoprotein (gp)160 (precursor protein split into gp120 and gp41). HIV Genome gag encoding nucleocapsid proteins : p24, p17 pol -enzymes reverse transcriptase (RT), protease, integrase, HIV Regulatory/accessory genes Tat (transcriptional activation domain) and
Rev promote viral replication The HIV promoter is located in the 5' LTR and contains an enhancer with two NF-kB binding sites and the transactivation response element (where Tat binds). HIV Envelope Proteins
Glycoprotein (gp) 120 molecule is noncovalently bound to gp41, which is embedded in the envelope membrane. Gp120 is the viral attachment receptor for host cell entry and target for neutralizing antibodies. HIV Life cycle HIV infects:
CD4+ T cells: activated and naive Macrophages Dendritic cells. HIV Life Cycle HIV entry The two primary co-receptors are CXCR4 and CCR5.
Resistance to HIV Entry Individuals with a 32 bp deletion in their CCR5 gene appear to be resistant to HIV. Individuals with increased levels of the chemokines that bind to CCR5 (MIP1- MIP1-, and RANTES) have reduced levels of viral replication and may have greater resistance to
infection. HIV Life Cycle Replication or Integration Once viral RNA in cytoplasm---- ssRNA uses RT to make cDNA copy and then double-stranded viral DNA. dsDNA can make mRNA and viral RNA to initiate replication ------- lytic infection OR
dsDNA migrates to nucleus and integrates into the genome using a viral integrase ---- latent infection HIV Life Cycle Replication or Integration HIV Life Cycle Integration establishes Latency
Once integrated, the virus can remain latent for long periods. Provirus is the integrated DNA copy of the viral RNA. HIV Life Cycle Activation of Latently Infected Cell
Transcription factors (such as NF-B) can act on the HIV enhancer regions to initiate transcription of viral DNA into RNA. mRNA transcripts are used for protein genomic ssRNA transcripts are made for inclusion in viral particles that initiate lytic infection. HIV Life Cycle
Activation of Latently Infected Cell Clinical Aspects Transmission HIV is transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids. Routes of transmission Contact with rectal or genital mucosa with infected
semen or vaginal secretions. By injections of HIV-infected blood. During pregnancy, childbirth, or nursing (vertical transmission). DC-SIGN Captures HIV-1 DC-SIGN Captures HIV-1 and Retains Long-Term Infectivity
Transmission - acute infection Immune response to HIV Humoral immune response Neutralizing antibodies to gp120. Most important epitopes are found in the third hypervariable region of gp120 termed the V3 loop. These antibodies may play an important role in vivo especially during resolution of primary
infection. However the antibody titer does not decrease as immunodeficiency occurs. Immune response to HIV CMI response to HIV During the prolonged period of asymptomatic infection there is a vigorous CMI that is initially effective at eliminating virally infected cells but as
CMI begins to decline immunodeficiency begins. Immune response to HIV CD4+ Th CD4+ cells are the primary HIV infected cells. Uninfected HIV-specific CD4+ T cells found during long asymptomatic phase help eliminate virus.
Increased proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ Th cells from infected individuals correlates with reduced viral loads. Immune response to HIV CTLs crucial for anti-HIV CMI Why? The emergence of HIV-specific CTL during primary
infection correlates with acute viral load reduction. Inverse correlation between CTL activity and plasma viral RNA load. HIV specific CTLs have been found with activity against Env, gag, nef, pol. CTL escape mutants of HIV have been identified. CTLs produce high levels of MIP-1 , MIP-1, and RANTES. Immune response to HIV
CTLs crucial for anti-HIV CMI HIV-1 specific CTLs decline with increased disease and decreased CD4+ T cell numbers. But remember CD8+ T cells need CD4+ T cell cytokine help. CD4+ T cell Depletion
Why are there low numbers of infected CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood? Few infected CD4+ T cells detected in blood during the clinically latent period. However HIV found in lymph nodes. Keep in mind that 98% of lymphocytes are in immune organs and tissues not in peripheral blood.
CD4+ T cell Depletion Pathogenic Process in Lymph Nodes HIV remains active in the lymph nodes, and large numbers of viral particles can be detected in lymphoid follicles. Activity of the virus in these sites eventually leads to loss of follicular dendritic cells and disruption of
lymphoid architecture. CD4+ T cell Depletion Why are there low numbers of infected CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood? Steady State Model of Infection CD4 T cell decline is a gradual losing of long immune struggle involving a cycle of CD4+ T cell infection
CD4+ T cell death CD4+ T cell replacement. Steady State Model of Infection What goes on during long asymptomatic phase? Constant battle HIV vs
CD4 T cell Steady State Model of Infection Constant battles HIV vs Immune System CD4 T cells Amount
2-4 week cycle Viral Load Time CD4+ T cell Depletion Steady state model of infection Constant turnover of CD4+ T cells drives
the pathogenic process and constant viral replication contributes to development of HIV genetic variation. Finally the CD4+ T cell regeneration is exhausted, CD4+ T cell number declines, and AIDS develops. Potential Mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion
Infected CD4+ T cells killed directly by HIV, or by virus-specific CD8+ CTL. Uninfected CD4 cells Cross-linking of CD4 by gp120 can cause T cells to undergo apoptosis. Gp120 may bind CD4+ T cells in the thymus and interfere with positive selection. HIV May Infect Thymus
Lead to Lytic Infection or Latency Clinical aspects of HIV Infection Diagnostics Detection of exposure to HIV determined by ELISA measuring antibodies to gp120. Confirmed by Western Blot measuring antibody response to all viral proteins.
HIV Viral RNA detected by PCR. Drug Therapy Antivirals Nucleoside analogs. Nucleoside chain terminators AZT (3'-azidothymidine, ddI (dideoxy-inosine), ddC (dideoxycytidine), D4T, 3TC. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors nevirapine.
Protease inhibitors which inhibit protein processing of large polyproteins. ritonavir, saquinavir -many more. Combination drug therapy is most beneficial. Mechanism for antivirals Effect of Antivirals on AIDS Deaths
AIDS Cases and deaths in U.S.A. from 1985-1999 Clinical aspects of HIV Infection Monitoring Infection Amount or viral particles measured in plasma by PCR test detecting viral RNA. Known as "viral load".
CD4 T cell counts measured by flow cytometry. Effect of Antivirals on Viral Load Effect of Antivirals Viral Load CD4 T cells After antiviral therapy
viral load goes down and CD4 T cells up. HIV Vaccine Issues Animal model not reproducible. HIV protein sequence variation. high mutation rate of HIV allows rapid antigenic variation. What immune response will provide protection?
Need to identify good immunogens. Stimulate immunity on mucosal surfaces. Original HIV Vaccines Various preparations of gp120 injected with adjuvant. Good for antibody responses but poor for CTLs.
Current Vaccine in humans Canarypox-HIV and synthetic proteins Canarypox virus with gp160 gene (and other genes) followed by immunization with recombinant gp120 and or gp41 proteins as a booster. Thus the canarypox vaccine primes eliciting both CTL and some ab responses followed by boost with recombinant protein to elicit increased ab responses.
Soldier for Life Campaign . Mission. Soldier for Life . connects. Army, governmental, and community efforts to build relationships that facilitate successful reintegration of our Soldiers, Retired Soldiers, Veterans, and their Families in order to keep them Army Strong and...
Good evening Chair and members of the Planning Commission. The presentation before you tonight is a strategy and work plan on how to address the issue of neighborhood compatibility of newer single-family homes and major additions.
European Periods of Floral Design Renaissance Period Baroque Period Flemish Period French Styles English Georgian Period Victorian Period Arrangements were large, tall, pyramidal and symmetrically balanced Arrangement was twice the height of container Flowers were loose, airy and uncrowded Symmetrical...
Nouns and Articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos) It is often said that a noun is a person, place or thing. That is true but, in fact, a noun is anything we can put a name on. Therefore, even words...
PLC teams develop norms to guide their collaboration. By what standards of behaviors will a team agree to operate? Ground Rules or habits that govern the group. When individuals work through a process to create explicitly stated norms, and then...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!