Hybrid Resources as Power Plants Mark Ahlstrom, ESIG

Hybrid Resources as Power Plants Mark Ahlstrom, ESIG

Hybrid Resources as Power Plants Mark Ahlstrom, ESIG and NextEra Energy Resources Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Explosive growth in solar + storage projects Both co-located and full hybrid designs (trending toward hybrid?) As an example from NextEra: Over half of planned PV includes storage All planned storage is combined with PV The storage hybrid concept may apply broadly

Solar + storage, wind + storage, gas + storage, or anything + storage? May apply, with some potential adjustments, to virtual power plants and aggregated distributed energy resources Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations AC versus DC Coupling AC Coupled 3 Fluence Energy LLC. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission of Ray Hohenstein, Fluence. DC Coupled

HIGHER EFFICIENCY 52 52 DC-COUPLED AC-COUPLED 3 power electronic conversions

3 power electronic conversions 1 battery charge and discharge 1 battery charge and discharge 1 transformer conversion

3 transformer conversions Efficiency = 89.2% Efficiency = 86.2% = .95 * .982 * .982 * .984 * .99 = .95 * .984 * .99 * .99 * .984 * .984 * .99 Assumed efficiencies: PV inverter = 98.4%, Battery inverter = 97.5%, DC-DC = 98.2%, transformer = 99%, batteries = 95% round trip LOW VOLTAGE HARVEST (LVH)

ONLY WITH DC-COUPLED PV inverters harvest DC input when the array or string voltage is above a certain threshold. This impacts generation at beginning of day, end of day and in heavy cloud cover. Maximizing solar with DC-coupled energy storage 6 Fluence Energy LLC. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission of Ray Hohenstein, Fluence. Hybrid Resources Definition A combination of multiple technologies that are physically and electronically controlled by the Hybrid Owner/

Operator behind the point of interconnection (POI) and offered to the grid as a single resource at that POI Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Proposed Hybrid Resources Concept An intelligent agent approach whereby the Hybrid Owner/Operator internalizes the characteristics of the components behind the POI and offers energy and/or ancillary services at the POI in the same way as a conventional resource, but with more flexibility and fewer constraints through coordinated use of energy, storage, power electronics and software technologies Energy Systems Integration Group

Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Benefits to System/Market Operator Use existing conventional market participation models Treat hybrid like conventional resources, not renewable or storage resources Hybrid Owner/Operator manages state-of-charge (often through their offers) Hybrid offers energy and ancillary services in both DA and RT markets Offers of energy and ancillary services can be co-optimized from all resources Doesnt curtail renewable for headroom services from battery rate-ofcharge Provides fully convex, one-part offers* without advance commitment requirements, startup costs, minimum generation levels or other constraints * Monotonically increasing energy offers without startup or no-load fees. For a good explanation of convexity and offers, see: https://www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2015/06/price_information_technical_session11.pdf Energy Systems Integration Group

Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Benefits to Hybrid Owner/Operator Can participate in all market products using an existing market participation model (changing a master data file, not creating a new participation model) Treated like conventional resource with full co-optimization of energy and ancillary services offers using existing day ahead and real time constructs Allows the renewable component of the Hybrid Resource to generate fully without the need to be curtailed to retain headroom to provide services Allows the storage component of the Hybrid Resource to be charged from the renewable component of the Hybrid Resource (or from grid, if allowed) Same incentives/penalties for performance as for conventional resources Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations

PV Hybrid Resources Offers and Operations Offer strategy based on high-confidence PV forecast Offers use probabilistic PV forecast backed by storage to firm variability and forecast uncertainty (day ahead, hour ahead, eventually intra-hour?) Creates products by controlling the battery, NOT by retaining headroom on PV Battery often used around middle of its range most daylight hours, charged for evening Battery state-of-charge is often controlled via the offers of energy and ancillary products (e.g., regulation-up and spin are usually charging the battery) Hybrid Resources internalize the non-convexities* and the renewable forecasts One-part offers*, Pmin=0, Pmax=offer based on P95+ forecast No startup time, startup cost, min-run time or other constraints * Monotonically increasing energy offers without startup or no-load fees. For a good explanation of convexity and offers, see: https://www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2015/06/price_information_technical_session11.pdf

Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Motivates Beneficial Behavior from the Hybrid Sophisticated Analytics Deeply understanding battery degradation costs, opportunity costs, forecasts and risks, and working to improve them Using the best available forecasts of the renewable resource (and investing in improving those forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts that better reflect risk and certainty around the forecasts), because this allows offers of larger volumes of services while managing delivery risks Forecasting and offering services so as to be most available during the most critical hours of system need, as this should align with periods of highest value Optimizing the power plant design to maximize the services that are useful to

and valued by the system while minimizing their risk of delivering such service Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Changing Plant Design to Improve Offers Hybridizing changes plant design Leads to dramatic internal design changes and higher effective renewable capacity factors Variability is reduced by pushing much of it into clipped region and controlling battery charge rate Power forecasting skill can be improved as viewed from the POI

Many options to optimize layout, orientation, bifacial PV panels, etc. Optimizes use of interconnection Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations From Sun, Khan, Deline, Alam Optimization and Performance of Bifacial Solar Modules: A Global Perspective https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261917317567 Hybrid Resources Summary and Future Steps Hybrid Resources can initially compete as generic flexible generators Allow treatment as a single resource a unified system controlled by an intelligent agent Hybrid would give up renewable DIR/PIR-type settlement and other VER accommodations

Treat Hybrid Resource comparably to a conventional generation resource with a typical forced outage rate, comparable incentives/penalties for performance and contingency treatment Hybrid resources, operated as a single resource, will eventually change market products, market design and market participation No advance commitment, startup costs, minimum generation levels or other constraints Will we build standalone storage, or mostly just Hybrid Resources? Which is better, a highly flexible generator or a battery storage resource? What, exactly, is the difference? How does it affect planning, markets and operations? Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Discussion paper is available https://www.esig.energy/hyflex-hybrids-and-emerging-flexible-resources/

Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations Mark Ahlstrom President, Energy Systems Integration Group VP, Renewable Energy Policy, NextEra Energy Resources [email protected] Twitter/LinkedIn @markahlstrom www.esig.energy Energy Systems Integration Group Charting the Future of Energy Systems Integration and Operations

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