Atomic Theory Atoms are made up of smaller

Atomic Theory  Atoms are made up of smaller

Atomic Theory Atoms are made up of smaller particles called subatomic particles. THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM It is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons ELECTRONS: Orbit the nucleus Charge of -1

Very low mass THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM It is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons Protons: In the nucleus Charge of +1 Much higher mass then

electrons THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM It is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons Neutrons: In the nucleus Charge of 0 Almost identical mass as

protons THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM The relative size of the nucleus and atom! Atomic Theory

# of PROTONS = # of ELECTRONS in an neutral atom Nucleus Nuclear Charge Nuclear Charge = charge on the nucleus = number of protons = ATOMIC NUMBER

BLM 2-4 to 2-10 The Periodic Table Which letter(s) are missing in the periodic table? The Periodic Table

The Chemical Elements The Chemical Elements GROUPS 1 18 OR

GROUPS 1 18 OR 1A 8A + 1B 8B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B

1 2B B Periods (1 7) SOME GROUPS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

The ACTUAL THE PERIODIC TABLE The Periodic Table Where are the following? Atomic number INCREASING REACTIVITY

Period Group/Family Metals Non-metals Transition metals Metalloids Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals

Halogens Noble gases Periodic Table and Ion Formation Atoms gain and lose electrons to form bonds. i.e. become positively or

negatively charged IONS Atom or a group of atoms with net negative or positive charge IONS Atom or a group of atoms with net negative or positive charge

POSITIVELY CHARGED ION = CATION NEGATIVELY CHARGED ION = ANION

Metals Metals Always form ions with a POSITIVE charge Multivalent Metals that have can lose electrons in more than Metals

one way Multivalent DO YOU KNOWMetals WHICH ONES ARE THERE? iron, cooper, vanadium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, palladium, platinum, gold, lead, tin, titanium, germanium, platinum, thallium

Non - Metals Almost always form ions with a NEGATIVE charge Non - Metals Almost always form ions with a NEGATIVE charge

WHAT NON-METAL IS AN EXCEPTION? Hydrogen BOHR DIAGRAMS There is a pattern to the arrangements of

electrons in atoms Atoms have SHELLS of electrons around the nucleus BOHR DIAGRAMS Each shell can hold a certain number of

electrons First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell:

Fourth shell: 8 electrons 8 electrons BOHR DIAGRAMS Diagram that shows how many electrons are in each shell

First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: Fourth

shell: 8 electrons 8 electrons Patterns of Electron Arrangement in Groups If there are 8 electrons in a last shell = STABLE OCTET

Which group has a STABLE OCTET in its outer most ATOMS WANT TO HAVE A STABLE

OCTET!!!!!! ALL THE TIME!! If there are 8 electrons in a shell = STABLE OCTET All ATOMS want to be like

NOBLE GASES! Valence Shell = OUTERMOST SHELL VALENCE ELECTRONS Electrons in the VALENCE SHELL are called VALENCE ELECTRONS

How many VALENCE ELECTRONS in GROUP 1? How many VALENCE ELECTRONS in GROUP 2? How many VALENCE ELECTRONS in GROUP

16? What Do You Notice about # of Valence Electrons for Elements in the Same Group? What Do You Notice about # of Energy Levels (occupied

shells) for Elements in the Same Period? What Element is this? 18 p 22 n argon

LEWIS DIAGRAMS Show only an atoms valence electrons and the chemical symbol. LEWIS DIAGRAMS Show only an atoms valence electrons and

the chemical symbol. Rule # 1 Dots representing valence electrons are placed around the element symbols Rule # 2

Electron dots are placed singly until the fifth electron is reached then they are paired. MOLECULES and IONIC COMPOUNDS Atoms combine with different atoms to form compounds (thanks to electrons)

Forces that hold atoms together are called CHEMICAL BONDS SHARING ELECTRONS Covalent Bonds DONATING ELECTRONS

Ionic Bonds MOLECULES and IONIC COMPOUNDS Atoms combine with different atoms to form compounds (thanks to electrons)

Forces that hold atoms together are called CHEMICAL BONDS MOLECULES Covalent Bonds IONIC COMPOUNDS

Ionic Bonds MOLECULES and IONIC COMPOUNDS Atoms combine with different atoms to form compounds (thanks to electrons)

These bonds arise when VALENCE ELECTRONS interact Each atom attempts to have as many of valence electrons as the nearest noble Each atom attempts to have as many

of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas. Metals want to lose electro ns

Each atom attempts to have as many of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas. Non Metals want to gain

electro Each atom attempts to have as many of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas. 10 electrons How many

electrons does sodium, Na, want to have? Each atom attempts to have as many of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas.

10 electrons How many electrons does oxygen, O, want

IONS Atom or a group of atoms with net negative or positive charge POSITIVELY CHARGED ION = NEGATIVELY

CHARGED ION = CATION ANION IONIC COMPOUNDS Formed by an attraction of positively charged ion and negatively charged ion

Chemical formula NaCl IONIC COMPOUNDS Formed when electrons are transferred from a metal to a non - metal Chemical

formula NaCl IONS Cations and Anions are attracted to each other IONIC BONDING NaCl

IONIC COMPOUNDS Attraction between cations and anions IONIC COMPOUNDS Attraction between cations and anions IONIC COMPOUNDS Attraction between cations and anions

IONIC COMPOUNDS Draw the Bohr model diagram for KF MOLECULES and IONIC COMPOUNDS Atoms combine with different atoms to form compounds (thanks to electrons)

Forces that hold atoms together are called CHEMICAL BONDS SHARING ELECTRONS Covalent Bonds DONATING ELECTRONS

Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Valence Electrons are shared between atoms Covalent Bonds Valence Electrons are shared between atoms

+ hydrogen fluorine electrons are shared Hydrogen fluoride

Lewis Diagrams of IONS and IONIC BONDS For positive ions, one electron dot is removed from the valence shell for each positive charge. For negative ions, one electron dot is added to each valence shell for each negative charge. Square brackets are placed around each ion to indicate transfer of electrons.

Lewis Diagrams of IONS and IONIC BONDS For positive ions, one electron dot is removed from the valence shell for each positive charge. For negative ions, one electron dot is added to each valence shell for each negative charge.

Square brackets are placed around each ion to indicate transfer of electrons. Be

Cl

Each beryllium has two electrons to transfer away, and each chlorine can receive one more electron.

Cl

Be Cl

Since Be2+ can donate two electrons and

each Cl can accept only one electron, two Cl ions are necessary.

2+

Be Cl

Cl beryllium chloride

IONIC COMPOUNDS Draw the Lewis model diagram for K and F Ca and Cl Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS Like Bohr diagrams, valence electrons are drawn to show sharing of electrons. The shared pairs of electrons are usually drawn as a straight lineare placed around each

ion to indicate transfer of electrons. Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS LONE pair of electrons BONDING pair of electrons

Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS Draw Lewis diagram for H and O N and H C and H How many BONDING PAIRS for?

How many LONE PAIRS for? Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS Draw Lewis diagram for H and O N and H C and H

Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS Diatomic molecules, like O2, F2 or N2 are also easy to draw as Valence electrons are Lewis diagrams. shared Several non-metals join to form diatomic molecules.

Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS Draw LEWIS STRUCTURE of O2 O O O O

O O DOUBLE BOND Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS Draw LEWIS STRUCTURE of N2

N N N N N N TRIPLE BOND Lewis Diagrams of COVALENT BONDS

Draw LEWIS STRUCTURE of CO2 C O O O C O O C O

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The Food Pyramid

    The Food Pyramid

    THE FOOD PYRAMID By Leah Starck TEKS 115.5. Health Education, Grade 3. A) Knowledge and Skills 1. Health Behaviors. The Student explains ways to enhance and maintain health throughout their lifespan.
  • Writng the Redesigned FRQs for AP Government and Politics

    Writng the Redesigned FRQs for AP Government and Politics

    Writngthe Redesigned FRQsfor AP Government andPolitics. Combined, the 4 FRQ's are worth 50 % of your overall grade on the APGovexam.Each of the4 FRQ's is worth 12.5% of yourgrade.. Students have 100 . minutes total to write . the four....
  • 药物创新中的专利信息检索与利用 - Cbex.com

    药物创新中的专利信息检索与利用 - Cbex.com

    30个月冷冻期结束后,FDA于2006年7月授予Teva公司临时许可,2007年2月授予最终许可。 案例3. 二次创新:旧药新用 案例4. 知己知彼、百战不殆 案例5 . Swanson研究的启示 从文献中发现隐藏联系的研究 专利信息的价值 专利文献是技术创新信息的载体。
  • Energy Flow through Ecological Systems - San Jose State ...

    Energy Flow through Ecological Systems - San Jose State ...

    Cycling of Matter in Ecological Systems The balance of life… Or Biogeochemical Cycles Each element has its own story All nutrients flow from nonliving (abiotic) to living (biotic) and back to nonliving (abiotic) in what is called a biogeochemical cycle.
  • In the Business of….?

    In the Business of….?

    Lumber is harvested from trees and cut to size in a sawmill. Graphite: The part of the pencil that writes is made from graphite. Graphite, like metal, can be found in mines in the ground. ... Think of three goods...
  • Free is better Accessing free ebooks and more

    Free is better Accessing free ebooks and more

    Zinio (Magazines) Download popular magazines, including The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Cosmopolitan, Car & Driver, Rolling Stone, Mother Earth News, The Economist, Clean Eating, & more! No limit, and no expiration dates. Both new issues and back issues.
  • ENZYMES - WordPress.com

    ENZYMES - WordPress.com

    PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentation Steps of Enzyme Activity Remember: Enzymes can help build or break down molecules. "Lock & Key" Model Shows Enzyme Specificity "Denature" means to change the shape of an enzyme. When this happens the enzyme does not...
  • Westward Expansion

    Westward Expansion

    Manifest Destiny "And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government...