Product Design revision time! Questions then content 1.
Product Design revision time! Questions then content 1. What is meant by market pull? 2. Give me two reasons that a product evolves. 3. Which of the following movements is the odd one out: Art Nouveau, Arts and Crafts, De Stijl. Explain why. 4. What evolution factors are involved in a phone being redesigned? Evolutio n Word Meaning
Product Evolution This is when products are continuously for factors such as improvement, market pull, technology push, political and environmental needs This is when things are designed to satisfy the needs and wants of consumers. This is also changes that take place because of changing fashions and social attitudes. Market pull Design movements Movement
Info Arts and crafts Founded by William Morris. Often the designs are based on nature. Products are usually made by hand. Art Nouveau Flowing and curvy. They often use floral or insect motifs. Art Deco Inspired by African and Egyptian art. It involves bold colours, geometric, zigzag and stepped shapes.
In Germany. Form follows function. Products thought to be designed with the function first before form. This is a Dutch movement. The designs are basic and use primary colours and simple shapes. Bauhaus De Stijl Postmodernist Rejects the form follows function idea. They thought style should be the starting point. The Memphis movement and kitsch were also at the same time. Image Questions then
content 1. How could a smoke alarm be designed so that it is suitable for deaf people? 2. Give me a way that a menu could be redesigned for a visually impaired person. 3. What is anthropometrics? Give an example of anthropometric data. Human factors Designing with disabilities in mind: Braille = to enable blind people to be able to read the information Instructions are often given in picture format so that people with reading difficulties can access the information Designing with culture and religious values: Dietary needs = some people can not eat certain foods based on their culture Customs and celebrations = some people celebrate different things Colours = some cultures think of particular colours in very different ways.
Word Meaning Ergonomics This is how easy and comfortable a product is to use. Anthropometrics This is the data used to ensure that products are the correct shape and size. It used body measurement data. Quality control Word Meaning
Quality Assurance This is the systems and procedures that manufactures have in place to make sure that their products are high quality. This is testing e.g testing that a component is the correct colour and/or size. Quality control Quality the laws - There are certain laws to protect customers: - Consumer protection from unfair trading regulations (this makes sure that anything the product claims is true) - The General Product Safety Regulations (this states that
no one can put a product on the market unless it is safe). - Sale of Goods Act (this makes sure that a product performs as you would expect for a reasonable amount of time.) - Furniture and Furnishings (Fire Safety) Regulations (this makes sure that fabric products do not catch fire easily and do not give off toxic fumes when they burn.) Quality the standards - BSI British Standards Institute. - British Toy and Hobby Association (BTHA) - The Internal Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) Questions then content 1.
2. 3. 4. What are the functions of packaging? What are the six Rs? What is built in obsolescence? What causes a product to have a carbon footprint? Packaging Functions: - Contain - Protect - Preserve - Inform - This is to hold them together and for
storage - This is to stop them from breaking when a product is transported. - This is to stop foods from deteriorating when exposed to oxygen. - This provides the consumer with information about the product. Such as ingredients etc. Environmental impact The 6 Rs: - Recycle - Take an existing product that has become waste and re-process it to form a new product - Reduce - Minimise the amount of material and energy used during the whole products life cycle - Repair - When a product breaks or doesnt work properly,
fix it. - Reuse - Take a product that has become waste and use the material or parts for another purpose. - Refuse - Dont accept a product if you dont need it or its not environmentally sustainable. - Rethink - Our current lifestyles and the way we design and make. Ethics and environmental issues Sustainable design This means to not cause permanent damage to the environment and not using up finite resources (those that will run out eventually).
Built in obsolescence This is when a product has a built in life span and is only meant to last a certain amount of time. It will become obsolete (useless) after time. E.g. a balloon or razer blade. Biodegradable Carbon footprint This is something that will decay over time. For example paper and card are biodegradable but glass is not. This is the amount of greenhouse gases that are released by making or using something. All products
have a carbon footprint. Questions then content 1. What safety symbols do manufacturers have to display on their products? 2. If a material is brittle what does that mean? 3. If a product has good plasticity what does this mean? Symbols Symbol Info British Standards This is also known as the kite mark. It shows that products have met certain standards.
CE mark (European This is the European standards for safety. Products standards) must have this symbol to be sold in Europe. Recycling This is to inform consumers how to correctly dispose of their product. Irritant This means that it will be irritant to the skin. Flammable
Will catch fire easily. Image Symbols Symbol Info Environmental hazard Is a danger to the environment so must be disposed of in a particular way. Explosive
This is symbolising that the product will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat, light and expanding pressure within a very short period of time. Harmful This symbol is to warn about hazardous materials, locations, or objects, including electric currents, poisons, and radioactivity. Image Properties of materials Property
Meaning Strength Hardness Plasticity Brittleness This is the ability to withstand forces without breaking. This is the ability to withstand scratching, rubbing or denting This is if the material can change shape permanently This means that the material can not withstand much stretching. Brittle materials are likely to crack or break. This is the opposite of brittle. It can absorb impact without breaking or snapping. This means that it can withstand repeated use. Toughness
Durability Questions then content 1. Name three types of card. 2. What type of card would be suitable for a storage box? 3. What type of card would be suitable for a cereal box? 4. What are the different sizes of paper? 5. What are the most common sizes of paper? Paper and card Paper/card Info
Cartridge paper This is high quality and has a textured surface. Good for sketching, inks and watercolours. Strong, thin and translucent and used for general design work. Layout paper Grid paper Tracing paper Solid white board Corrugated board Duplex board gsm May have square or isometric pattern printed on it. Translucent and used to copy images. High quality bleached surface, which is ideal for printing.
This is largely used in packaging as it has a fluted inner core and two outer layers. It is strong. This is a different colour and texture on each side. It often used where only one surface is seen. This stands for grams per square metre. The gsm is above 200 for card. Paper and card - Paper is available in: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and so on. Laminating paper/card gives it new properties - Paper and aluminium foil is often used to package food - Paper coated with polythene makes it waterproof - Foam core board = polystyrene being laminated between card. Questions then content
1. What are the different types of timber? 2. What forms does timber come in? Timber Type Info Softwoods Grow in colder climates and are fast growing. This makes them relatively cheap. The trees have leaves like needles. Some examples are scots pine and Parana pine. These usually grow in warm climates and are slow growing. They are generally more expensive because of this. The trees have broad leaves are usually deciduous. Some examples are oak and teak. They tend to have a tighter grain and are denser than softwoods.
These are made by gluing sheets, blocks, chips or fibres of woods. Some examples are plywood, block board, clipboard, MDF and hardboard. Hardwoods Manufactured boards Timber - Timber is available in different sizes such as in planks and strips. - Rough sawn = wood is not smoothed after its cut. This makes it cheaper and useful for construction work. - Mouldings = hardwood strips that come in a range of cross-sections. - Veneers = cuts of wood that are glued to other materials
to give them a nicer appearance. Timber - There are different ways to finish wood: - Woodstain Oil Paint Polyurethane varnish Questions then content 1. Name a ferrous metal? 2. What forms does metal come in? 3. What coatings can be applied to metals to protect them?
Metals Ferrous metals Type Properties Cast Iron Very strong if compressed but brittle and may crack if dropped Mild Quite strong and cheap, but rusts steel easily. Stainless Hard, it wont rust. It is more expensive steel than mild steel.
Uses Bench vices, car brake discs. Car bodies, screws, nuts, bolts, nails Surgical equipment, sinks, kettles, cutlery Metals Non-ferrous metals Type Properties Aluminium Lightweight, resistant to corrosion, expensive, not as strong as steel.
Copper Fairly soft, malleable, ductile, very good electrical conductor. Brass Strong, resists corrosion, malleable, ductile, electrical conductor. Uses Aeroplane bodies, cans Wiring, pipes, pans Door handles, taps, locks, electrical parts.
Metals - Metals are available in different shapes and sizes. - Sheet Strip Different shaped rods and bars Pipe or tube Angle U-shaped channel I-shaped girder Metals - Metals are extracted from the earth. - Heat treatments: - Annealing - This is where the metal is heated and left to cool slowly. This makes it softer, more ductile
and less brittle. - Hardening - This is when you heat and rapidly cool a metal. This makes it harder. - Tempering - This makes the metal tougher and less likely to break. - Possible metal coatings = painting, plastic coating, plating and lacquering. Questions then content 1. What are the two groups of plastic? 2. What plastic would be most commonly used for bottles? 3. What plastic has glass strands within it? Plastics Type
Meaning Thermoplastics These are easily formed, recyclable but do not resist heat very well. Thermosetting These can resist heat and fire. They undergo a plastics chemical change when heated to become hard and rigid. Thermoplastic s Plastic Acetate Acrylic Properties and uses
Hard, transparent and flexible. Hard and shiny. Resists weather well. Can be used to make motorcycle helmet visors, baths, signs. Low density Soft and flexible. Used for packaging, carrier bags, washing up liquid polyethylene (LDPE) bottles High density Stiff and strong but lightweight. Used for things like washing up polyethylene bowls, baskets, folding chairs (HDPE) PET Light, strong and tough. Used to make see through drink bottles. High impact Rigid and fairly cheap. Used for vacuum forming. polystyrene (HIPS)
Thermosetting plastics Plastic Properties and uses Epoxy resin (ER) Rigid, durable and corrosion resistant. Used for circuit boards and wind turbine rotor blades. Hard, brittle and a good electrical insulator. Used for things like plug sockets and cupboard handles. Strong and scratch proof. Used to laminate chipboard and for plates and bowls. This is a thermosetting plastic that is mixed with glass strands to make it really strong. Used for racing car bodies an light aeroplanes.
Urea Formaldehyde (UF) Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) Plastics - Plastics are mostly made from oil. - Shapes and sizes = films, rolls, foam, sheets, rods, tubes and granules. Questions then content 1. What different types of fixings are there? 2. Give some examples of standard components.
3. Why might a designer or manufacturer buy in some standard components? Fixings and bindings - Double sided sticky pads Ratchet rivets Snap rivets Velcro Press stud fastenings Magnets Hooks Staples Spiral binding
Standard components - Standard components are pre-manufactured parts - Mass produced so available at a lower cost - Saves time and makes manufacture more efficient - Saves money as specialist equipment and additional material isnt needed. Examples: - Screws and bolts - Rivets - Knock down fittings Questions then content 1. Name a smart material 2. Name a new material 3. What smart or new material would be suitable for a
baby spoon? 4. What smart or new material is commonly used in jewellery? New and smart materials - New and smart materials differ: - New = This is a material that has been developed with different and useful properties. - Smart = This is a material that changes its properties when their environment changes. New materials New material examples: - Corn-starch polymers
- Precious metal clay These are made from maize (sweetcorn) and are renewable. They are biodegradable so more sustainable. This is a material that contains particles of metal. It is often used to make jewellery. Smart materials Smart material examples: - Thermochromic materials - Shape memory alloys They change colour with heat. Good for
warning when something is too hot. These can easily be shaped when cool but return to a remembered shape when heated above a certain temperature. Tools: Tool name Use Panel saw For wood Coping saw Hacksaw
For wood or plastic For cutting metal and plastic Tenon saw For wood Circular saw To cut woods and boards like plywood Band saw Come in different widths and can make straight or curved cuts. Used to cut plastics and softer metals. Interchangeable blades and variable speeds. You
can make straight or curved cuts in all materials. Jig saw Image Tools: Tool name Counter sink Use Widens the opening to an existing hole. This allows screw threads to sit flush on the surface. Wood chisels This is for making different shapes. Used for some joint creation. Used with a mallet. Bench
For taking off think layers of a material. Used to shape planes wood. Files Hundreds of small teeth to cut away at a material. Available in different shapes. Usually used on metals and plastics. Rasps are used for wood. Milling Used to remove one thin layer of material at a time. machine Produce an accurate finish. Bench Contains abrasive wheels of different grades. Used to grinder remove metal for shaping and finishing. Lathe Used to cut and shape materials, to produce rounded
objects. E.g. chair legs. Image Please refer to other PP for more info Casting and moulding: Injection Moulding Blow Moulding Vacuum Forming Scale of production: One off
This is when only one production: - See other PP product is made at a time Batch production: Mass production Continuous flow production Just in time production This is when a small quantity of identical products are made together This is when hundreds/thousands/millions of
identical products are made. This is when many thousands of identical products are made. The production line is kept running 24 hours a day, seven days a week. This is when the manufacturer only orders what they need so they are only producing the necessary amounts of a product; this Consistency of production: - Manufacturers want their products to be consistent. They use things like jigs, templates and moulds to help to speed up the process. Jigs Templates
Moulds These help to manufacture repetitive components. It makes sure that the workpiece is positioned in the correct place. These are used to make repetitive shapes. They are easy to make and easy to use. These are used to make 3D shapes. They are more commonly used in plastic forming such as vacuum forming, compression moulding and blow moulding. CAD CAM: CAD = Computer Aided Design - This involves designing products on the computer, rather than using pencil and paper. - Programs include: Adobe Illustrator, Techsoft 2D Design,
Solidworks. CAM = Computer Aided Manufacture - This is the process of making products with the help of computers. - Examples of CAM machines are CNC routers, laser cutters, laser printers.
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