ATM Communications Navigation and Surveillance SYST 460 560

ATM Communications Navigation and Surveillance SYST 460 560

ATM Communications Navigation and Surveillance SYST 460 560 Fall 2003 G.L. Donohue Evolution of CNS/ATM 1922 ATC begins 1935, an airline consortium opened the first Airway Traffic Control Station 1930 Control Tower Page 11-15 Katon, Fried 1940s Impact of radar Airway Centers ADS-B GPS 1960s & 70s Radio Frequencies

Name Abbreviation Frequency Frequency Wave length VLF 3 to 30 kHz 100 to 10km Low LF 30 to 300 kHz 10 to 1km Medium MF 300 to 3000 kHz

1km to 100 m High HF 3 to 30 MHz 100 to 10m Very high VHF 30 to 300 MHz 10 to 1cm Ultrahigh UHF 300 to 3000 MHz 1m to 10cm Super high SHF

3 to 30 GHz 10 to 1cm Extremely high EHF 30 to 300 GHz 10 to 1mm Very low Line-of-Sight Waves VHF and UHF have about 70 nmi. Range at 6,000 ft. altitude Line-of-sight range Weather Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) are weather conditions in which visibility is restricted, typically less than 3 miles Acft operating in IMC are supposed to fly under IFR Visibility Categories (by ICAO)

(1) Category I Decision height not lower than 200 ft; visibility not less than 2600 ft, or Runway Visual Range (RVR) not less than 1800 ft with appropriate runway lighting. The pilot must have visual reference to the runway at the 200ft DH above the runway or abort the landing. Acft require ILS and marker-beacon receiver beyond other requirements for flights under IFR. Category I approaches are performed routinely by pilots with instrument ratings Visibility Categories (by ICAO) (2) Category II DH not lower than 100 ft & RVR not less than 1200 ft (350m) The pilot must see the runway above the DH or abort the landing Additional equipment that acft must carry include dual ILS receivers, either a radar altimeter or an inner-marker receiver to measure the DH, an autopilot coupler or dual flight directors, two pilots, rain-removal equipment (wipers or chemicals), and missed-approach attitude guidance. An auto-throttle system also may be required Visibility Categories (by ICAO) (3)

Category III subdivided into IIIA. DH lower than 100 ft and RVR not less than 700 ft (200m)-sometimes called see to land: it requires a fail-passive autopilot or a head-up display IIIB. DH low than 50 ft & RVR not less than 150 ft (50m)-sometimes called see to taxi; it requires a failoperational autopilot & an automatic rollout to taxing speed IIIC. Zero visibility. No DH or RVR limits. It has not been approved anywhere in the world Decision Height Acfts are certified for decision heights, as are crews When a crew lands an acft at an airport, the highest of the three DHs applies. An abort at the DH is based on visibility Alert height is the altitude below which landing may continue in case of equipment failure Typical Alert height is 100 ft Integrated Avionics Subsystems (1) 1. Navigation 2. Communication

intercom among the crew members & one or more external two-way voice & data links 3. Flight control Stability augmentation & autopilot The former points the airframe & controls its oscillations The latter provides such functions as attitude-hold, headinghold, altitude hold 4. Engine control The electronic control of engine thrust(throttle management) Integrated Avionics Subsystems (2) 5. Flight management Stores the coordinates of en-route waypoints and calculates the steering signals to fly toward them 6. Subsystem monitoring & control Displays faults in all subsystems and recommends actions to be taken 7. Collision-avoidance

Predicts impending collision with other acft or the ground & recommends an avoidance maneuver Integrated Avionics Subsystems (3) 8. 9. Weather detection Observes weather ahead of the acft so that the route of flight can be alerted to avoid thunderstorms & areas of high wind shears Sensors are usually radar and laser Emergency locator transmitter(ELT) Is triggered automatically on high-g impact or manually Emit distinctive tones on 121.5, 243, and 406 MHz The Vehicle Avionics Placement on multi-purpose transport Architecture (1) Displays; Present information from avionics to the pilot Information consists of vertical and horizontal navigation data, flight-control data (e.g. speed and angle of attack), and communication data (radio frequencies)

Architecture (2) Flight controls; The means of inputting information from the pilot to the avionics Traditionally consists of rudder pedals and a control-column or stick Switches are mounted on the control column, stick, throttle, and hand-controllers Architecture (3) Computation; The method of processing sensor data Two extreme organizations exist: 1. Centralized; Data from all sensors are collected in a bank of central computer in which software from several subsystems are intermingled 2. Decentralized; Each traditional subsystem retains its integrity Architecture (4)

Data buses Copper or fiber-optics paths among sensors, computers, actuators, displays, and controls Safety partitioning Commercial acft sometimes divide the avionics to; 1. Highly redundant safety-critical flight-control system 2. Dually redundant ,mission-critical flightmanagement system 3. Non-redundant maintenance system Military acrft sometimes partition their avionics for reason other than safety Architecture (5) Environment Avionics equipment are subject to; acft-generated electricity-power transient, whose effects are reduced by filtering and batteries, externally generated disturbances from radio transmitters, lightening, and high-intensity radiated fields The effect of external disturbances are reduced by shielding metal wires and by using fiberoptic data buses add a Faraday shielding to meal skin of the acft Architecture (6) Standards Navaid signals in space are standardized by ICAO Interfaces among airborne subsystems, within the

acft, are standardized by Aeronautical Radio INC. (ARINC), Annapolis Maryland, a nonprofit organization owned by member airlines Other Standards are set by: Radio Technical Commissions for Aeronautics, Washington DC European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) etc. Human Navigator Large acft often had (before 1970) a third crew member, flight engineer: To operate engines and acft subsystems e.g. air conditioning and hydraulics) Use celestial fixes for positioning Production of cockpits with inertial, doppler, and radio equipments facilitated the automatically stations selection, position/waypoint steering calculations and eliminated the number of cockpit crew to two or one. Communications is the Glue for ATM-CNS Context Context for for Communication Communication Architecture Architecture

Operational Concepts Services Flt Plan Service Functional Capabilities FP Processing Message Types FUNCTIONAL Traffic Mgmt Synchronization Process user preferences Message Types ARCHITECTURE Communications Architecture Enabling Communication Links

VHF-AM ACARS VDL-2 VDL-3 VDL-4 VDL-B SATCOM MODE-S UAT HFDL ATC Advisory Tech Concepts

FIS TIS CPDLC CPC DSSDL AOCDL ADS-B AUTOMET APAXS Air-Ground Air-Ground Comm Comm Functional Functional Architecture Architecture AIRBORNE WEATHER OBSERVATION VOICE OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE MESSAGING

AIRCRAFT NEGOTIATION ADS-B POSITION/ INTENT AUTOMET FIS TIS APAXS TV, RADIO INTERNET WEATHER NAS STATUS CPC CPDLC ADS-B DSSDL NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE AIRCRAFT

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AOC COMM Commercial Service Provider NWIS OTHER AUTHORIZED USERS INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FBOS AIRLINES OPERATIONS CENTER Benefits Benefits Driven Driven Concept Concept

Aircraft Technical Concepts Range of User Equipage Automated Negotiation Dynamic Data Static Data Air Traffic Control CPC CPDLC AOCDL 2-way Strategic CDM CPC CPDLC DSSDL

TIS ADS-B FIS AUTOMET FIS Broadcast Tactical Control AOCDL Aeronautical Operational Control Humanbased DSSbased Info Base Functional Analysis 9 Technical Concepts

Defined Message categories and message types for each Technical Concept Concept Description Concept Diagram Architecture Architecture Alternatives Alternatives Summary Summary Operational Concept Aircraft continuously receive Flight Information to enable common situational awareness Aircraft continuously receive Traffic Information to enable common situational awareness Technical VHF-AM Concept VDL-2/

ATN VDL-3/ ATN SATCOM- SATCOMBroadcast 2way TIS CPDLC DSSDL Acceptable Alternative UAT

Controller - Pilot messaging supports efficient Clearances, Flight Plan Modifications, and Advisories (including Hazardous Weather Alerts) Mode-S CPC Aircraft report airborne weather to improve weather nowcasting/forecasting Passengers enjoy in-flight television, radio, telephone, and internet service VDL-B FIS Controller - Pilot Communication

Aircraft exchange performance / preference data with ATC to optimize decision support Aircraft continously broadcast their position and intent to enable optimum maneuvering Pilot - AOC data exchange supports efficient air carrier/air transport operations and maintenance VDL-4/ ATN ADS-B AOCDL

AUTOMET APAXS NAS Architecture AATT CSA Recommendation Operational Concept - Tech Concept Message Categories Concept Concept Description Description -- Flight

Flight Information Information Service Service Aircraft continually receive dynamic Flight Information to enable common situational awareness Weather Information NAS Status NAS Traffic Flow Status Note: We assume that static data will be loaded on aircraft via portable storage media prior to flight. FIS Message Set Msg ID (M#) M15 Message Category Definition/Comment Convection M17 Departure ATIS

Includes data regarding cloud tops, freezing level, lightning activity, projected decay, water content, etc. AutomaticTerminal Information Service (Airport Domain) M18 Destination Field Conditions M20 En Route Strategic General Imagery M21 FIS Planning - ATIS AutomaticTerminal Information Service (Terminal Domain) M22 FIS Planning Services Includes real-time weather advisories and warnings M26 General Hazard

M27 Icing (Terminal Tactical) A general hazard product would likely include weather hazards in addition to other known hazards (traffic, terrain..) May not be practical, difficult to implement. Would depend on automatic reports from in flight aircraft to a central ground location for constant plotting, updating and reporting. M28 Icing/ Flight Conditions (En Route Far IMC and icing are included in this product aimed at GA. Term, Near Term Strategic, Tactical) Low Level Wind Shear (Terminal Tactical) This product may identify dangerous shearing winds caused by microbursts, frontal passage, etc. Generated from ground-based sensors, fused with NEXRAD or TDWR data to create a near-ground level view. Radar Mosaic Real-time broadcasts of NEXRAD or TDWR-type RADAR pictures in the terminal area. M29 M35 Combination of text, icons, and graphics potentially describing NOTAM information, RCR readings, ramp snow conditions, de-icing necessity, arrival rates, etc. Backup for synthesized weather products or for direct imagery requirement. Examples include satellite photos, lightning strike data, hand drawn surface analysis.

Source (1) 33 80 33 33 80 80 33 33 33 33 33 M37 Surface Conditions (En Route Far Term Strategic) This product will project surface conditions to enhance situational awareness and support contingency planning 33 M39 Turbulence (En Route Far Term and Near Strategic Turbulence information will become one of the most important future products. A true tactical

Term Strategic, En route Tactical) product may not be feasible but future product may combine current sensed condition with next available nowcast. 33 M40 Winds/Temperature (En Route Far Term and Near Term Strategic) 33 This product contains information on Enroute winds and temperatures Note: (1) Source 33 is the Data Com munications Requirem ents , Technology and Solutions for Aviation Weather Information Systems (Phas e I Report), Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Sys tems 1999 Source 80 is RTCA DO 237, Aeronautical Spectrum Planning, 1997 Flight Information Service - FIS Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm Aircraft NAS / SUA STATUS A

C ATIS OASIS CSP Comm Network FIS PROC VDL Comm Network Comm I/F VDL RCVR NOTAM NWIS INTEGRATED NETWORK WARP

SATCOM NEXRAD NWS Wx Vendor(s) N E T W O R K AAIS MFDS SAT COM RCVR UAT XCVR UAT Comm Network

Comm Network ADAS Wx Sensor(s) Portable Storage Media UAT GroundBased Pilot PC Traffic Traffic Information Information Services Services TIS TIS Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm ADS-B GND RCVR Primary Secondary

Aircraft ADS-B XCVR VDL-B Comm Network VDL-B VDL-B XCVR Comm Network SATCOM RCVR SATCOM Automation L A N

Comm I/F ATC Facility A C N E T W O R K ADS-B Processor AAIS MFDS CDTI CSP UAT XCVR UAT Comm Network

UAT Controller Controller // Pilot Pilot Data Data Link Link Communications Communications CPDLC CPDLC Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm ARTCC Automation L A N Aircraft Comm I/F AAIS A C VDL Comm

Network TRACON VDL-3 XCVR Automation L A N Comm I/F Automation L A N Comm I/F TOWER FSS

Automation L A N Comm I/F N E T W O R K MFDS CPC CPC Controller/Pilot Controller/Pilot Voice Voice Communication Communication Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm ATC Voice

Comm Head Voice Switch FTI Comm Network Aircraft VHF Voice Radio Pilot Voice Existing A/G Radio VDL Radio NEXCOM RADIO Voice

Data Decision Decision Support Support System System Data Data Link Link DSSDL DSSDL Ground Systems Air / Ground ARTCC Comm Automation L A N Comm I/F FTI Comm Network TRACON Automation L A

N VDL-3 XCVR Comm I/F TOWER Automation Aircraft L A N Comm I/F A C N E T W O R K

AAIS FMS Aeronautical Aeronautical Operational Operational Control Control Data Data Link Link AOCDL AOCDL AOC Automation L A N Comm I/F AAIS CSP VDL-2 Comm Network

A C VDL-2 XCVR N E T W O R K MFDS FMS Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm Aircraft AOCDL Message Message Set Set Msg ID (M#) M8

M9 M10 M11 M12 M19 M23 M25 M30 M33 Message Type Airline Maintenance Support: Electronic Database Updating Airline Maintenance Support: In-Flight Emergency Support Airline Maintenance Support: Non-Routine Maintenance/ Information Reporting Airline Maintenance Support: On-Board Trouble Shooting (non-routine) Airline Maintenance Support: Maintenance/ Information Reporting Diagnostic Data Flight Data Recorder Gate Assignment Out/ Off/ On/ In Position Reports Automatic Automatic Dependent

Dependent Surveillance Surveillance -- Broadcast Broadcast ADS-B ADS-B Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm Aircraft AAIS GPS GPS RCVR Primary Secondary Comm Network N E T W O R K

ADS-B GND RCVR ADS-B XCVR Automation L A N Comm I/F ATC Facility A C MFDS FMS ADS-B Automated Meteorological Transmission

- AUTOMET NASA AOC NWS UAT Comm Network CSP Comm Network PROC Comm I/F VDL Comm Network FSL SATCOM Ground Systems Air / Ground Comm

UAT XCVR VDL XCVR A C N E T W O R K SAT COM XCVR Aircraft Wx Sensor(s) FMS Data Link Summary Data Link

HFDL ACARS Single Channel Data Rate kbps 1.8 2.4 Capacity for Aeronautical Communications Channels Available to Aircraft Channels 2 10 Channels 1 1 # Aircraft Sharing

Channel (Expected Maximum) Aircraft 50 25 Comments Intended for Oceanic ACARS should be in decline as users transition to VDL Mode 2 System can expand indefinitely as user demand grows Assumes NEXCOM will deploy to all phases of flight Intended for surveillance Intended for FIS Intended for surveillance Intended for surveillance/FIS Assumes satellites past service life Planned future satellite VDL Mode 2 31.5 4+

1 150 VDL Mode 3 31.5* ~300 1 60 VDL Mode 4 VDL B Mode-S UAT SATCOM Future SATCOM Future Ka Satellite 19.2 31.5 1000** 1000 384

1-2 2 1 1 15 1 1 1 1 1 500 Broadcast 500 500 ~200 2,000 ~50 ~50 ~200 Estimated capability - assumes capacity split for satellite beams

Fourth Generation Satellite >100,000 >100 >100 Unknown Based on frequency license filings * ** Channel split between voice and data. The Mode-S data link is limited to a secondary, non-interference basis with the surveillance function and has a capacity of 300 bps per aircraft in track per sensor (RTCA/DO-237). Top Down Architecture FTI Network NEXCOM Site VDL-3

Primary 2-way CPC / CPDLC / DSSDL CSP Interface CSP Network VDL-2 Secondary 2-way AOC / AUTOMET FTI Network CSP Network SATCOM FIS / TIS / APAXS FTI Network ADS-B

Site UAT VDL-4 Mode-S Data Transmit ADS-B Ground Link Aircraft 2007 Architecture - UAT Data Ground Link Aircraft FTI Network NEXCOM Site VHF-AM

CPC - Voice CSP Interface CSP Network VDL-2 Secondary 2-way CPDLC / DSSDL AOC / AUTOMET FTI Network CSP Network VDL-B FIS - Regional FTI Network ADS-B

Site CSP Network FIS / TIS UAT Data Transmit ADS-B SATCOM APAXS Navigation / Surveillance Functions Augmentation Network VOR Site FTI Networ k Radar Site WAAS / LAAS VOR Mode-A/C/S

Navigation Rcvr WAAS / LAAS / VOR Surveillance Xpndr Separation / TCAS Communication Communication Architecture Architecture Schedule Schedule -- FIS FIS 00 Avionics Systems Ground-Comm Air-Ground Comm Certification 02 03 SATCOM Ant / Rcvr Research Standards 01

04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Integrated Demo FIS-B SATCOM FIS-B UAT FIS-B SATCOM FIS-B SATCOM FIS-B FIS Data Compression Research Link Simulation Standards

VDL-B Systems (data links) UAT SATCOM V- SATCOM Research Standards NAS Wide Info System NWIS Data AOC / CDM Network Systems WARP Wx Network FTI NWIS System Operational time span Communication Communication Architecture Architecture Schedule Schedule -- TIS TIS

00 Avionics Research 01 02 03 SATCOM Ant / Rcvr 04 05 Integrated Demo UAT Systems SATCOM TIS-B SATCOM Ground-Comm Air-Ground Comm Certification

Standards 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 TIS-B SATCOM Standards Research 06 VDL-B TIS Data Compression Link Simulation TIS-B SATCOM UAT VDL-B Systems (data links) SATCOM Research Standards

V- SATCOM NAS Wide Info System NWIS Data AOC / CDM Network Systems FTI NWIS System Operational time span Communication Communication Architecture Architecture Schedule Schedule -- CPDLC CPDLC 00 01 Avionics Research Standards 02

05 (data links) Research Standards 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 CPDLC VDL-2 MMR VDL-3 MMR CPDLC VDL-3 CPDLC VDL-2 Prioritization of HzWx on VDL-2 Addition al MSG for Hz Wx Standards Systems 06

Voice Synthesi s CPDLC Certification Ground-Comm Air-Ground Comm 04 Voice Synthesis Demo Systems Research 03 VDL-2 VDL-3 NAS Wide Info System NWIS Data DLAP

Systems DLAP -R FTI NWIS System Operational time span Communication Communication Architecture Architecture Schedule Schedule -- AOCDL AOCDL 00 Avionics Research Standards 02 03 04 05 DSSDL

AUTOMET Systems VDL-2 MMR 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Integrated Demo DSSDL AUTOMET CPDLC 06 VDL-2 MMR VDL-2 MMR DSSDL CPDLC AOCDL Certification Ground-Comm Air-Ground Comm 01

AOCDL VDL-2 Research CPDLC VDL-2 DSSDL VDL-2 DSSDL Integrated Demo DSSDL Integrated Demo Standards Systems (data links) VDL-2 VDL-2 Mod 1 Research Standards Systems DLAP

DLAP - M1 FTI NWIS System Operational time span Communication Communication Architecture Architecture Schedule Schedule -- ADS-B ADS-B 00 Avionics Research 01 02 03 ADS-B Mode-S / UAT / VDL-4 Systems

ADS-B Mode-S / UAT Certification Ground-Comm Air-Ground Comm 05 SF-21, CAPSTONE Standards Research 04 ADS-B Link Evaluation Standards Technology Link Decision Systems (data links) Research Standards Systems

Mode-S UAT VDL-4 NAS Wide Info System NWIS Data FTI NWIS System Operational time span 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Communication Communication Architecture Architecture Schedule Schedule -- Cross-cutting Cross-cutting Ground-Comm Air-Ground Comm Cross-cutting 00 Research

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 NAS Wide Info System Multifunction Display Information Security NWIS Data Standards Symbology Mode-S UAT VHF-AM Systems

(data links) VDL-B C, Ku, S SATCOM VDL-2 VDL-3 SATCOM Systems AOC / CDM Network V- SATCOM FTI WARP Wx Network System Operational time span NWIS Cross Cross Cutting Cutting Technology Technology Gaps

Gaps Architecture Requirement 2007/2015 2015 2007 Cross Cutting Technology Issues System or Component Segment Ground New System Required Com. Interface to Distributed NAS New System x Wide Database (standard data set, access protocol, user verification) Information Security Improved Datalink Required Authentication

New System x Data Validation Improved System x Protection from Interference Improved System x Air Space NAS-Wide Information System x x x x x Navigation Navigation: Geometry of The Earth For navigational purposes, the earths surface can be represented by an ellipsoid of rotation around the Earths spin axis The size & shape of the best-fitting ellipsoid is chosen to match the sea-level equal-potential surface.

Geometry of The Earth Fig 2.2 Median section of the earth, showing the reference ellipsoid & gravity field Coordinate Frames The position, velocity and attitude of the aircraft must be expressed in a coordinate frame: WGS-84 Navigation coordinate frame Navigation Phases Picture courtesy of MITRE Corporation Aircraft System Hierarchy Heading attitude

Inertial air data Doppler Star line of sight Deadreckoning computatio ns Celestial equations Positioning sensors Radio(VOR, DME, Loran, Omega) Satellite (GPS) Radar Positioning computatio ns To cockpit display pointing sensor

Attitud e Position Way points Velocity Attitude Most probable position computation Position data Positio n Time to go Course computatio ns Range, bearing to displays,

FMS Steering signals to To map display autopilot Velocit y Block diagram of an aircraft navigation system To weapon computers Terminal Area Navigation 1. Departure: begins from maneuvering out the runway, ends when acft leaves the terminal-control area 2. Approach: acft enters the terminal area, ends when it intercepts the landing aid at an approach fix

Standard Instrument Departure (SIDs) & Standard Terminal Approach Route (STARs) Vertical navigation Barometric sensors Heading vectors Assigned by traffic controller En Route Navigation Leads from the origin to the destination and alternate destinations Airways are defined by navaids over the land and by lat/ long over water fixes The width of airways and their lateral separation depends on the quality of the navigation system From 1990s use of GPS has allowed precise navigation In the US en-route navigation error must be less than 2.8 nm over land & 12 nm over ocean Approach Navigation Begins at acquisition of the landing aid until the airport is in sight or the acrft is on the runway, depending on the capabilities of the landing aid Decision height (DH): altitude above the runway at

which the approach must be aborted if the runway is not in sight The better the landing aids, the lower the the DH DHs are published for each runway at each airport An acrft executing a non precision approach must abort if the runway is not visible at the minimum descent altitude (typically=700 ft above the runway) Landing Navigation Begins at the DH ends when the acrf exits the runway Navigation may be visual or navigational sets may be coupled to a autopilot A radio altimeter measures the height of the main landing gear above the runway for guiding the flare The rollout is guided by the landing aid (e.g. the ILS localizer) Missed Approach Is initiated at the pilots option or at the traffic controllers request, typically because of poor visibility. And alignment with the runway The flight path and altitude profile are published Consists of a climb to a predetermined holding fix at which the acrf awaits further instructions Terminal area navaids are used VHF Omnidirectional

Range(VOR) Receiver characteristics The airborne equipment comprises a horizontally polarized receiving antenna & a receiver. This receiver detects the 30 Hz amplitude modulation produced by the rotating pattern & compares it with the 30 Hz frequency-modulated reference. Fig 4.16 Doppler VOR Doppler VOR applies the principles of wide antenna aperture to the reduction of site error The solution used in US by FAA involves a 44-ft diameter circle of 52 Alford loops, together with a single Alfrod loop in the center Reference phaseThe central Alford loop radiates an omnidirectional continuous wave that is amplitude modulated at 30 Hz The circle of 52 Alford loops is fed by a capacitive commutator so as to simulate the rotation of a single antenna at a radius of 22ft Rotation is at 30rps, & a carrier frequency 9960 Hz higher than that in the central antenna is fed to the commutator With 44-ft diameter & a rotation speed of 30 rps, the peripheral speed is on the order of 1400 meters per second, or 480 wavelengths per second at VOR radio frequencies Distance-Measuring Equipment (DME) (1) DME is a internationally

standard pulse-ranging system for acft, operating in the 960 to 1215 MHz band. In the US in 1996, there were over 4600 sets in use by scheduled airlines and about 90,000 sets by GA DME Operation Distance-Measuring Equipment (DME) (2) The acft interrogator transmits pulses on one of 126 frequencies, spaced 1 MHz apart, in the 1025 to 1150 MHz band. Paired pulses are used in order to reduce interference from other pulse systems. The ground beacon(transponder) receives these pulses & after a 50 sec fixed delay, retransmits them back to the acft. The airborne automatically compares the elapsed time between transmission and reception, subtracts out the fixed 50 sec delay, & displays the result on a meter calibrated in nautical miles. Hyperbolic Systems Named after the hyperbolic lines of position (LOP) that they produce rather than the circles

Loran-C Omega Decca Chayka Measure the time-difference between the signal from two or more transmitting station Measure the phasedifference between the signal transmitted from pairs of stations Long-Range Navigation(Loran) A hyperbolic radio-navigation system beginning before outbreak of WW II 1. Uses ground waves at low frequencies, thereby securing an operating range of over 1000 mi, independent of line of sight 2. Uses pulse technique to avoid sky-wave contamination

3. A hyperbolic systemit is not subject to the site errors of point-source systems 4. Uses a form of cycle (phase) measurements to improve precision All modern systems are of the Loran-C variety Long-Range Navigation (Loran-C) Is a low-frequency radio-navigation aid operating in the radio spectrum of 90 to 110 kHz Consists of at least three transmitting stations in groups forming chains Using a Loran-C receiver, a user gets location information by measuring the very small difference in arrival times of the pulses for each Master -Secondary pair Each Master-Secondary pair measurement is a time difference. One time difference is a set of points that are, mathematically, a hyperbola. Therefore, position is the intersection of two hyperbolas. Knowing the exact location of the transmitters and the pulse spacing, it is possible to convert Loran time difference information into latitude and longitude Loran-C (2) Signal shape Position Loran-C (2)

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System GPS was conceived as a U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) multiservice program in 1973, bearing some resemblance to & consisting of the best elements of two predecessor development programs: The U.S. Navys TIMATION program The U.S. Air Forces program GPS is a passive, survivable, continuous, space-based system that provides any suitably equipped user with highly accurate threedimensional position, velocity, and time information anywhere on or near the earth Principles of GPS & System Operation GPS is basically a ranging system, although precise Doppler measurements are also available To provide accurate ranging measurements, which are time-ofarrival measurements, very accurate timing is required in the satellite. (t<3 nsec) GPS satellite contain redundant atomic frequency standards To provide continues 3D navigation solutions to dynamic users, a sufficient number of satellite are required to provide geometrically spaced simultaneous measurements. To provide those geometrically spaced simultaneous measurements on a worldwide continues basis, relatively high-altitude satellite orbits are required GPS Satellite System Configuration

Consists of three segments Space segment Control segment User segment GPS System Configuration General System Characteristics The GPS satellites are in approximately 12 hour orbits(11 hours, 57 minutes, and 57.27 seconds) at an altitude of approximately 11,000 nmi The total number of satellite in the constellation has changed over the years ~24 Each satellite transmits signals at two frequencies at LBand to permit ionosphere refraction corrections by properly equipped users General System Characteristics The GPS satellites are in approximately 12 hour orbits(11 hours, 57 minutes, and 57.27 seconds) at an altitude of approximately 11,000 nmi The total number of satellite in the constellation has changed over the years ~24 Each satellite transmits signals at two frequencies at LBand to permit ionosphere refraction corrections by properly equipped users The GPS segments Segments

Input Function Product Space Satellite commands Navigation messages Provide atomic time scale Generate PRN RF signals Store & forward navigation message PRN RF signals Navigation message Telemetry Control PRN RF signals Telemetry Universal coordinated Time(UTC)

Estimate time & ephemeris Predict time & ephemeris Manage space assets Navigation message Satellite commands User PRN RF signals Navigation messages Solve navigation equations Position, velocity, & time GPS Space Segment The space segment is comprised of the satellite constellation made up of multiple satellites. The satellite provides the basic navigation frame of reference and transmit the radio signals from which the user can collect measurements required for his navigation solution Knowledge of the satellites position and time history (ephemeris and time) is also required for the users solutions. The satellite also transmit that information via data modulation of the signals CDMA @ 1.2 to 1.5 GHz

LB and P C Very accurate atomic clocks ~< nanosecond GPS Control Segment Consists of three major elements Monitor stations that track the satellites transmitted signals & collect measurements similar to those that the user collect for their navigation A master control station that uses these measurements to determine & predict the satellites ephemeris & time history and subsequently to upload parameters that the satellite modulate on the transmitted signals Ground station antennas that perform the upload control of the satellite User Segment Is comprised of the receiving equipment and processors that perform the navigation solution These equipments come in a variety of forms and functions, depending upon the navigation application Basics of Satellite Radio Navigation (1) Different types of user equipments solve a basic set of equations for their solutions, using the ranging and/or range rate (or change in range) measurements as input to a

least-squares, or a Kalman filter algorithm. Fig 5.2 Ranging satellite radio-navigation solution Basics of Satellite Radio Navigation (2) The measurements are not range & range rate (or change in range), but quantities described as pseudorange & pseudorange rate (or change in pseudorange). This is because they consisit of errors, dominated by timing errors, that are part of the solution. For example, if only ranging type measurements are made, the actual measurement is of the form PRi Ri ct si ctu PRi PRi is the measured peseudorange from satellite i Ri is the geometric range to that satellite, t siis the clock error in satellite i, tisu the users clock error, c is the speed of light and PRi is the sum of various correctable or uncorrectable measurements error Basics of Satellite Radio

Navigation (3) Neglecting for the moment the clock and other measurement errors, the range to satellite i is given as Ri X si 2 2 X u Ysi Yu Z si Z u 2 X si , Ysi andZ siare the earth-centered, earth fixed (ECEF) position components of the satellite at the time of transmission and X u , Yu andZ uare the ECEF user position components at that time Atmospheric Effects on Satellite Communication Ionosphere: Shell of electrons and electrically charged atoms & molecules that surrounds the earth Stretching from 50km to more than 1000km Result of ultraviolet radiation from sun Free electrons affect the propagation of radio waves

At frequency below about 30 MHz acts like a mirror bending the radio wave to the earth thereby allowing long distance communication At higher frequencies (satellite radio navigation) radio waves pass through the ionosphere System Accuracy GPS provides two positioning services, the Precise Positioning Service (PPS) & the Standard Positioning Service (SPS) The PPS can be denied to unauthorized users, but SPS is available free of charge to any user worldwide Users that are crypto capable are authorized to use crypto keys to always have access to the PPS. These users are normally military users, including NATO and other friendly countries. These keys allow the authorized user to acquire & track the encrypted precise (P) code on both frequencies & to correct for international degradation of the signal WAAS < 3 m horizontal < 7.5 m vertical GPS 15m Automatic Landing Systems (1) 1. Air carrier acft that are authorized for precisionapproach below category II must have automatic landing (auto-land) system. Guidance & control requirements by FAA

For category II: the coupled autopilot or crew hold the acft within the vertical error of +or- 12 ft at the 100ft height on a 3deg glide path For category III: the demonstrated touchdown dispersions should be limited to 1500ft longtudinally & -or+ 27ft laterally Automatic Landing Systems (2) 2. 3. Flare Guidance During the final approach the glide-slope gain in the auto-land system is reduced in a programmed fashion. Supplementary sensors must supply the vertical guidance below 100ft Lateral Guidance Tracking of the localizer is aided by heading (or integral-of-roll), roll, or roll-rate signals supplied to the autopilot and by rate & acceleration data from on-board inertial system Instrument Landing System(ILS) (1) Is a collection of radio transmitting stations used to guide acft to a specific runway.

In 1996 nearly 100 airports worldwide had at least one runway certified to Category III with ILS More than one ILS in high density airports About 1500 ILSs are in use at airports throughout the US Instrument Landing System(ILS) (2) ILS typically includes: The localizer antenna is centered on the runway beyond the stop end to provide lateral guidance The glide slope antenna, located beside the runway near the threshold to provide vertical guidance Marker beacons located at discrete positions along the approach path; to alert pilots of their progress along the glide-path Radiation monitors that, in case of ILS failure alarm the control tower, may shut-down a Category I or II ILS, or switch a Category III ILS to backup transmitters ILS Guidance Signals (1) The localizer, glide slope, and marker beacons radiate continues wave, horizontally polarized, radio frequency, energy The frequency bands of operation are Localizer, 40 channels from 108-112 MHz Glide slop, 40 channels from 329-335 MHz Marker beacons, all on a signal frequency of 75 MHz ILS Guidance Signals (2)

The localizer establishes a radiation pattern in space that provides a deviation signal in the acft when it is displaced laterally from the vertical plane containing the runway centerline The deviation signal drives the left-right needle of the pilots cross-pointer display & may be wired to the autopilot/flight-control system for coupled approaches The deviation signal is proportional to azimuth angle usually out to 5 deg or more either side of the center line ILS Guidance Signals (3) Sum & difference radiation patterns for the course (CRS) & clearance (CLR) signals of a directional localizer array The Localizer (1) The typical localizer is an array usually located 600 to 1000 ft beyond the stop end

antenna of the runway The array axis is perpendicular to the runway center line Log-periodic dipole antenna used in many localizer arrays The Localizer (2) Category IIIB localizer The Glide Slope (1) There are five different of glide-slope arrays in common use; three are image systems & two are not Image arrays depend on reflections from level ground in the direction of approaching acft to form the radiation pattern The three image systems are null-referenced system, with two antennas supported on a vertical mast 14 & 28 ft above the ground plane The sideband-reference system, with two antennas 7 and 22ft above the ground plane

The capture-effect system, with 3 antennas 14, 28, and 42 ft above the ground plane The Glide Slope(2) Category IIIB capture-effect glideslope & Tasker transmissometer The Glide Slope (3) Glide-slope pattern near the runway. DDM counters are symmetrical around the vertical, but signal strength drops rapidly off course The Glide Slope (4) The cable radiators of the end-fire array are installed on stands 40 in. high & are site alongside the runway near desired touchdown point

Fig 13.10 Fig 13.11 Standard end-fire glideslope system layout Front slotted-cable radiator of an end-fire glide slope ILS Marker Beacons (1) Marker beacons provide pilot alerts along the approach path Each beacon radiates a fan-shaped vertical beam that is approximately +or- 40deg wide along the glide path by +-85deg wide perpendicular to the path The outer marker(OM) is placed under the approach course near the point of glide-path intercept & it is modulated with two 400 Hz Morsecode dashed per second ILS Accuracy Allocation Standard lighting Pattern Airports at which Category II landings are permitted must be equipped with the standard lighting pattern

Category III runway configuratio n The Mechanics of Landing (1) 1. The approach Day & night landings are permitted under visual flight rules (VFR) when the ceiling exceeds 1000 ft & the horizontal visibility exceeds 3 mi, as juged by the airport control tower In deteriorated weather, operations must be conducted ubder Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) An IFR approach is procedure is either non-precision (lateral guidance only) or precision (both lateral & vertical guidance signals) Category I, II, and III operations are precision-approach procedures The Mechanics of Landing (2) An afct landing under IFR must transition from cruising flight to the final approach along the extended runway center line by using the standard approach procedures published for each airport

Approach altitudes are measured barometrically, and the transition flight path is defined by initial & final approach fixes (IAF & FAF) using VOR, VOR/DME Radar vectors may be given to the crew by approach control The Mechanics of Landing (3) From approximately 1500 ft above runway, a precision approach is guided by radio beams generated by ILS. Large acft maintain a speed of 100 to 150 knots during descent along the glide path beginning at the FAF (outer marker) The glide-path angle is set by obstacle-clearance and noise-abatement considerations with 3 deg as the international civil standard The sink rate is 6 to 16 ft/sec, depending on the acfts speed & on headwinds The Mechanics of Landing (4) The ICAO standard: glide path will cross the runway threshold at a height between 50 & 60 ft. Thus, the projected glide path intercepts the runway surface about 1000 ft from the threshold.

Wheel path for instrument landing of a jet acft Wide Area Augmentation System(WAAS) Developed by the FAA in parallel with European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) & Japan MTSAT SatelliteBased Augmentation System A safety-critical system consisting of a signal-in-space & a ground network to support en-route through precision approach air navigation The WAAS augments GPS with three services all phases of flight down to category I precision approach 1. A ground integrity broadcast that will meet the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) 2. Wide area differential GPS (WADGPS) corrections that will provide accuracy for GPS users so as to meet RNP accuracy requirements 3. A ranging function that will provide additional availability & reliability that will help satisfy the RNP availability requirements

WAAS Concept (1) WAAS Concept (2) Inmarsat-3 four ocean-region deployment showing 5deg elevation WAAS Concept (3) Uses geostationary satellite to broadcast the integrity & correction data to users for all of the GPS satellites visible to the WAAS network A slightly modified GPS avionics receiver can receive these broadcasts Since the codes will be synchronized to the WAAS network time, which is the reference time of the WADGPS corrections, the signals can also be used for ranging WAAS Concept (4) A sufficient number of GEOs provides enough augmentation to satisfy RNP availability & reliability requirements In the WAAS concept, a network of monitoring stations (wide area reference stations, WRSs) continuously track the GPS (&GEO) satellite & rely the tracking information to a central processing facility # Geo 2 minimum & 4 desired

WAAS Concept (5) The central processing facility (wide area master station, WMS)m in turn, determines the health & WADGPS corrections for each signal in space & relays this information, via the broadcast messages, to the ground earth station (GESs) for uplink to the GEOs The WMS also determines & relays the GEO ephemeris & clock state messages to the GEOs Surveillance GPS+WAAS+DL = ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) A technology designed to address both airspace and ground-based movement needs. Collaborative decision making is possible through ADSB surveillance information available to both ATC and aircrews. ADS-B combined with predictable, repeatable flight paths allow for increased airspace efficiencies in high density terminal areas or when weather conditions preclude visual operations. Additionally, ADS-B allow for enhanced ground movement management (aircraft and vehicles) and improved airside safety ADS-B A/A

A/G AAC AAIS AATT ACARS ADAS ADS ADS-B AFSS AIM AIRMET AM AMS AMS(R)S AMSRS AMSS AOC ARINC ARTCC ASIST ASOS ASR-9 ASR-WSP ATC ATC DSS ATCSCC ATCT ATIS ATM

ATN ATS ATSP AvSP AWIN AWIN AWOS BER BER CD CDM CDMA CDTI Air to Air Air to Ground Airlines administrative communications Advanced Aircraft Information System Advanced Air Transportation Technologies aircraft communications addressing and reporting system AWOS data acquisition system Automatic Dependent Surveillance Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast automated flight service station Aeronautical Information Manual Airman's Information Manual amplitude modulation acquisition management system Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Service

Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Service Aeronautical Mobile Satellite System airline operations center Aeronautical Radio Inc. Air route traffic control center Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy Team automated surface observing system airport surveillance radar- nine airport surveillance radar- weather system processor Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Control Decision Support Systems Air traffic Control System Command Center Air Traffic Control Tower Automatic Terminal Information Service air traffic management Aeronautical Telecommunication Network air traffic services air traffic service provider Aviation Safety Program Aviation Weather Information Services Aviation Weather Information automated weather observing system bit error rate Bit Error Rate compact disk Collaborative Decision Making Code Division Multple Access Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

CNS CONOPS CONUS COTS CP CPDLC CPU CSA CSMA CTAS CWA D8PSK DA DAG-TM DoD DOT DOTS DSR EMC EMI FAA FANS FANS 1/A FAR FAR FBO FBWTG FCC FDM

FDP FEC FEDSIM FFP1 FIS FL FMS FOQA FP FSS FSS G/G G/T GA Communications, Navigation and Surveillance concept of operations Continental United States Commericial Off-The-Shelf conflict probe Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications System central processing unit communications system architecture Carrier Sense Multiple Access Center-TRACON Automation system Center Weather Advisory Differential Eight-Level Phase Shift Keying descent advisor Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

Department of Defense Department of Transportation dynamic ocean tracking system Display System Replacement Electromagnetic Capability Electromagnetic Interference Federal Aviation Administration Future Air Navigation System future air navigation system Federal Air Regulations Federal Aviation Regulation Fixed Base Operator FAA bulk weather telecommunications gateway Federal Communications Commission flight data management flight data processor Frame error check Federal Systems Integration and Management Center Free Flight Phase 1 Flight Information Service flight level Flight Management System Flight Operational Quality Assurance flight plan flight service station Fixed Satellite Service Ground-to-Ground Gain to System Noise Temperature Ratio General Aviation

GEO GPS HARS HF HF ICAO IF IFE IFR IFR IMC IOC IP ITWS IWF KBPS LAN LEO LLWAS MBO MDCRS MEO METAR MFD MOC MOPS MSS MTBF

N/A NAS NAS RD NASA NATCA NAWIS NESDIS NEXCOM NEXRAD NLDN NOTAM NWS NWS/OSO OASIS OAT ODAPS PFAST Geostationary Earth Orbit Global Positioning System high altitude route system high frequency High Frequency International Civil Aviation Organization interface In-Flight Entertainment Instrument flight rules Instrument Flight Rules instrument meteorological conditions

initial operating capability Internet Protocol Integrated terminal weather system Integrated Weather Forecast Kilobites Per Second Local Area Network Low Earth Orbit Low-level wind shear alert system Military Base Operations Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System Medium Earth Orbit meteorological aviation report Multifunctional Display Mission Operational Control minimum operational performance standards Mobile Satellite Service Mean Time Between Failure Not Applicable National Airspace System NAS Requirements Document National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Air Traffic Controllers Association National Aeronautics and Space Administration national environmental satellite, data, and information service Next Generation A/G Communications System next generation radar national lightning detection network Notice to Airman National Weather Service

National Weather Service/Office of Systems Operations operational and supportability implementation system Office of Advanced Technology oceanic display and planning system passive final approach spacing tool PIREP PIREPS PSK QAM QoS RA RCP RD RF RTCA RTO RVR SAIC SAR SARP SATCOM SIGMET SOW SPECI SSR STC SUA TAF

TBD TDWR TFM TIS TM TMS TRACON TRM TWDL TWEB TWIP VDL VFR VHF VOR WAAS WAN WARP WJHTC WMSCR Wx WxAP Pilots Report pilot reports Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Modulation Quality of Service resolution advisory

Required Communications Performance requirements document Radio Frequency RTCA, Incorporated Research Task Order runway visual range Science Applications International Corporation Search and Rescue Standards and Recommended Practices Satellite Communications Significant Meteorological Information Statement of Work Special Weather Report Secondary Surveillance Radar supplemental type certificate Special Use Air Space Terminal Aerodrome Forecast to be determined terminal Doppler weather radar traffic flow management Traffic Information Services traffic management traffic management system Terminal Radar Approach Control Facility Technical Reference Model Two-Way Data Link Transcribed Weather Broadcast terminal weather information for pilots very high frequency digital link

visual flight rules very high frequency VHF-Omni Directional Range Wide Area Augmentation System Wide Area Network weather and radar processor William J. Hughes Technical Center weather message switching center replacement Weather weather accident prevention

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