ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS Adverbs An adverb modifies another

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS Adverbs An adverb modifies another element of a sentence; in fact, aside from nouns (which are modified by adjectives), they can modify almost every other word type: verb traditionally decorated adverb She sang extremely loudly adjective

slightly smaller pronoun nearly everyone 2 Adverbs Adverbs can also modify whole clauses, phrases or even sentences: I spotted only one crocodile only modifies the noun phrase one crocodile We made it almost to the end

almost modifies the prepositional phrase to the end No one can see them anyway anyway modifies the sentence as a whole. 3 Adverbs Not all adverbs end in ly Time adverbs: later, never, often, once, soon, today, tomorrow, Place adverbs: here, there, everywhere. Degree adverbs: almost, just, quite. Discourse markers: however, nevertheless, therefore

Not all words that end in ly are adverbs Adjectives: lovely, deadly, jolly, lonely. Nouns: bully, holly, jelly, family. Verbs: bully, multiply, apply, supply. 4 Adverbials An adverbial is a string of words that have a modifying function Four common types of adverbial are prepositional phrases

He arrived completely without warning.. noun phrases Jane telephoned me last night. subordinate clauses If you work hard, youll pass. non-finite clauses. Slipping on the icy surface, the boy grabbed hold of my hand. 5 A great example of adverbial prepositional phrases Rosies Walk by Pat Hutchins Rosie the hen went for a walk, across the yard,

around the pond, over the haycock . . . 6 A classroom example Where might we go? Exploring atmosphere with prepositional phrases Learning objective: Understand how to create atmosphere when describing a journey using prepositional phrases by the forgotten river under the chestnut tree What are these places like? beyond the sea

Who might you meet there? over the horizon What might happen in this place? in the shadows in the back of beyond over the rainbow Choose a non-finite verb to be modified 7 Adverbial detail: a KS3/4 example Opening to Lord of the Flies, William Golding: consider what the highlighted adverbial

detail adds to our view of the characters and their surroundings: The boy with fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way toward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from one hand, his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead. All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. He was clambering heavily among the creepers and broken trunks when a bird, a vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with a witch-like cry; and this cry was echoed by another. Hi! it said. Wait a minute!. ..The owner of the voice came backing out of the undergrowth so that twigs scratched on a greasy wind-breaker. The naked crooks of his knees were plump, caught and scratched by thorns. He bent down, removed the thorns carefully, and turned around. He was shorter than the fair boy and very fat. He came forward, searching out safe lodgments for his feet, and then looked up through thick spectacles. 8

Fronted adverbials These simply refer to single adverbs, adverbial phrases and clauses used at the start of a sentence or paragraph, to emphasise or connect ideas. They have become emblematic of concerns about teaching to the SATs: see Michael Rosens blog from March 2016: michaelrosenblog.blogspot.com/2016/03/health-alert-howfronted-adverbial.html an article in The Guardian from May 2017: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2017/may/09/front ed-adverbials-sats-grammar-test-primary 9

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