Lecture Outlines Chapter 11 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology

Lecture Outlines Chapter 11 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology

Lecture Outlines Chapter 11 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Withgott/Laposata Fifth Edition 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. This lecture will help you understand:

The scope of Earths biodiversity Background extinction rates and mass extinctions Causes of biodiversity loss The benefits of biodiversity Conservation biology Conservation of species Conservation above the species level 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Central Case Study: Will We Slice Through the Serengeti? The Serengeti is home to a yearly migration of over 2 million wildebeest, zebras, and antelope The Serengeti park complex is 30,000 km2 and has 800,000 visitors a year, bringing in almost $3 billion Tanzania intends to build a highway across the Serengeti Conservations fear that the highway will block the yearly migration and encourage poaching = illegal

killing of wildlife for meat or body parts International pressure has kept the road from being builtso far 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Planet of Life Humans are reducing Earths diversity of life Biological diversity or biodiversity = variety of life at all levels of organization

Species diversity Genetic diversity Population and community diversity Biologists employ different working definitions and look at different levels according to their aims and philosophies Basic concept applies across all levels 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Species diversity Species = a set of individuals that share certain characteristics and can interbreed, producing fertile offspring Species diversity = the number or variety of species in a particular region Richness = the number of species Evenness (relative abundance) = the similarity in numbers between species

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Species diversity Speciation adds to species richness; extinction reduces species richness Subspecies = populations of species that occur in different areas and differ slightly from each other Divergence stops short of separating the species 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Genetic diversity Encompasses the differences in DNA composition among individuals The raw material for adaptation to local conditions Populations with higher genetic diversity can survive They can cope with environmental change Populations with low genetic diversity are vulnerable to environmental change or disease Inbreeding depression = genetically similar parents mate and produce inferior offspring

Cheetahs, bison, elephant seals 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ecosystem diversity Ecosystem diversity = the number and variety of ecosystems May include different biotic communities or habitats within an area The open plains of the Serengeti hold a diversity of habitats, including savanna, grassland, wetland

May include habitats, communities, or ecosystems at the landscape level Sizes, shapes, and connections among patches An area with a variety of vegetation holds more biodiversity than the same size area with one plant type 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Some groups hold more species than others Species are not evenly distributed among taxonomic groups

Insects predominate over all other life-forms 40% of insects are beetles Beetles outnumber all other non-insect animals combined Groups accumulate species by: Adapting to local conditions Populations becoming divided geographically Low rates of extinction 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Many species await discovery 1.8 million species have been identified and described Estimates of the total number of species on the planet range from 3 million to 100 million Most widely accepted estimate of the number of species? Around 14 million

It is very difficult to know how many species exist Small organisms are easily overlooked Many species look identical until thoroughly examined 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity is unevenly distributed Living things are not distributed evenly on Earth Latitudinal gradient = species richness increases toward the equator Factors that contribute to higher diversity at the

equator: High plant productivity supports more animals Climate stability allows specialization, niches, and species coexistence No glaciation means species never have to leave 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity is unevenly distributed Diversity of habitats increases species diversity Human disturbance can increase habitat diversity

locally 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Extinction and Biodiversity Loss Extinction = the loss of all members of a species so it ceases to exist Extirpation = loss of a particular population, but not the entire species

Can lead to extinction Extinction occurs naturally 99% of all species that ever lived have gone extinct Although most extinction today is because of human action Background rate of extinction = the pace of 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Earth has experienced five mass extinction events Earth has had five mass extinctions in the past 440 million years Each event eliminated at least 50% of all species Permo-Triassic: 250 million years ago 8095% of all species on Earth went extinct Cretaceous-Tertiary: 65 million years ago Dinosaurs went extinct

Humans are causing this sixth extinction event We will suffer as a result 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We are setting the sixth mass extinction in motion Humans have driven hundreds of species to extinction

Dodo bird, Carolina parakeet, passenger pigeon Multitudes of others teeter on the brink of extinction Whooping crane, Kirtlands warbler, California condor Humans have been causing extinction for thousands of years Bird extinctions followed Polynesians arriving in Hawaii and New Zealand Many large mammals went extinct in Australia after

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Current extinction rates are much higher than normal The current extinction rate is 1001000 times greater than the background rate This rate is projected to increase tenfold in future decades Human population growth strains ecosystems

Red List = list of species facing high risks of extinction 21% of mammal species, 13% of bird species, 30% of amphibian species, 20% of fish species threatened 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Current extinction rates are much higher than normal In the United States, in the last 500 years, 236

animal and 30 plant species have been confirmed extinct Actual numbers are undoubtedly higher 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity loss involves more than extinction Smaller populations have smaller geographic ranges and are more likely to go extinct Extirpation has shrunk many species

The Living Planet Index summarizes population trends Measures change in size of populations Between 1970 and 2008, the index fell by 28%, meaning the average population is 28% smaller now Changes to the index are not the same everywhere In temperate zones, the index rose by 31% 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Habitat loss The greatest cause of biodiversity loss Habitats are destroyed, fragmented, and degraded Housing developments replace natural communities Farming simplifies communities Grazing modifies grassland structure and composition Clearing forests removes resources organisms need Hydroelectric dams turn rivers into reservoirs

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Habitat loss Habitat fragmentation = occurs when continuous habitats are broken into small patches (by farming, roads, logging, etc.) Species needing larger areas of that habitat disappear from the small fragments Can also prevent animals from moving to other places 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Habitat loss Habitat loss occurs in nearly every biome Habitat loss is responsible for declines in 83% of mammals and 85% of birds Over 99% of U.S. prairies have been converted to agriculture Grassland bird populations have declined 8299% A few species (e.g., pigeons, rats, cockroaches)

benefit from human-changed habitats 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Pollution and Overharvesting Pollution harms organisms in many ways Air pollution degrades forest ecosystems Water pollution impairs fish and amphibians Toxins, garbage, oil, and chemicals impact organisms

Although pollution is a substantial threat, it is less significant than the public thinks Hunting or harvesting threatens K-selected species Large, long-lived organisms that have few young can be hunted to extinction Elephants, gorillas, tigers, whales are at risk Governments have passed laws and signed treaties 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Invasive species and Climate change Introduction of non-native species to new areas Can be accidental or intentional Outcompete or kill native species Island species are especially vulnerable Invaders lack natural predators, competitors, or parasites

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Invasive species and Climate change Impacts on the Earths climate system are global Extreme weather events (storms) increase stress Melting sea ice in the Arctic threatens polar bears Mountaintop species are losing their habitat A 1.52.5C temperature rise could put 20%30% of plants and animals at increased risk of extinction

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Amphibians are vanishing Reasons for the decline of a species can be complex Amphibian populations are collapsing worldwide 2600 of the 6400 known species are in decline 1900 are threatened; 170 have gone extinct

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Amphibians are vanishing Wide variety of potential causes and contributors Habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species, climate change Populations in pristine environments were vanishing due to a fungal disease Scientists are beginning to understand the causes of

biodiversity loss We are also grappling with its consequences 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity provides ecosystem services Healthy ecosystems provide us with free services

Provides food, fuel, fiber, and shelter Purifies air and water and detoxifies wastes Stabilizes climate; moderates floods, droughts, wind, temperature Cycles nutrients; renews soil fertility Pollinates plants and controls pests and disease Maintains genetic resources Provides cultural and aesthetic benefits The value

ecosystem Allows usofto17 adapt to changeservices = $48 trillion per year 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity helps maintain ecosystem function It increases stability and resilience of natural systems

Decreased biodiversity reduces a systems ability to function and provide services to our society The loss of a species affects ecosystems differently If the species can be functionally replaced by others, it may make little difference Loss of keystone species, ecosystem engineers, or top predators causes other species to decline or disappear To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering (Aldo Leopold) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Biodiversity enhances food security Industrial agriculture has narrowed our diet 90% of our food comes from 15 crops and 8 animal species New potential food crops are waiting to be used Serendipity berry is 3000 times sweeter than sugar 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Biodiversity enhances food security Genetic diversity within crops is enormously valuable Turkeys wheat crops received $50 billion worth of disease resistance from wild wheat Wild and rare species can improve food security Some are disease resistant; others can be watered with sea water or grow year after year without being replanted

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Organisms provide drugs and medicines People have used plants for medicine for centuries Many modern medicines are derived from plants Wild species produce $150 billion/year of drugs Taxol comes from the Pacific yew tree Treats cancer

Every species that goes extinct is a lost opportunity to cure disease Some organisms that show medical promise are threatened with extinction 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity boosts economies through tourism and recreation

Biodiversity generates income through ecotourism Especially in developing countries Tanzania: savanna wildlife Ecotourism brings in one-quarter of all foreign money Costa Rica: rainforests Australia: Great Barrier Reef Belize: reefs, caves, and rainforests 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Biodiversity boosts economies through tourism and recreation A powerful incentive to preserve natural areas Reduce impacts on the landscape and species But too many visitors to natural areas can degrade the outdoor experience and disturb wildlife 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

People value connections with nature Biophilia = notion that humans love nature and have an emotional bond with other living things We have an affinity for parks and wildlife We love our pets We value real estate with views of natural lands Our interest in hiking, bird watching, fishing, etc. Nature deficit disorder = alienation from biodiversity and nature Suggested to be behind the emotional and physical

problems of the young 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Do we have ethical obligations toward other species? Many people feel that other organisms have an inherent right to exist Biodiversity conservation is justified on ethical grounds alone

Humans are part of nature and need resources to survive But we can control our actions and make choices Despite our expanding ethical considerations, the future of biodiversity remains unsecure 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation biology responds to biodiversity

loss Conservation biology = study of the factors behind the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity Scientists became alarmed at the degradation of natural systems An applied and goal-oriented science Conservation biologists integrate evolution, extinction, ecology, and environmental systems Aim of developing solutions to habitat degradation and species loss

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation biologists work at multiple levels Use field data, lab data, theory, and experiments to study our impacts on other organisms Conservation geneticists study genetic attributes of organisms to infer the status of their populations Minimum viable population size is how small a

population can become before it runs into problems Small populations may suffer inbreeding depression Metapopulations = a network of subpopulations Small populations are most vulnerable to extinction and need special attention 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Endangered species are a focus of conservation efforts Endangered Species Act (ESA) (1973) = the

primary U.S. legislation for protecting biodiversity It forbids the government and citizens from taking actions that destroy endangered species or their habitats or trading in products made from endangered species The ESAs goal is to prevent extinction Stabilize declining populations Enable populations to recover 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Endangered species are a focus of

conservation efforts Intensive management has saved or stabilized species 40% of declining populations have been stabilized These successes occur despite problems Underfunding of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service Recent political forces have tried to weaken the ESA 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Endangered species are a focus of conservation efforts Warranted but precluded = the science says the species should be listed, but lack of resources prevents the listing (e.g., greater sage grouse) Some environmental advocacy groups have sued the federal government for failing to enforce the law 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Endangered species are a focus of conservation efforts Many Americans support protecting endangered species Opponents feel that the ESA values endangered organisms more than the livelihood of people Protection will restrict land use and cost jobs Shoot, shovel, and shut up = landowners conceal the presence of endangered species on their land

But the ESA has stopped few development projects Habitat conservation plans and safe harbor agreements = arrangements whereby landowners can harm species if they improve habitat for the 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Endangered species are a focus of conservation efforts Many countries have laws protecting endangered

species They are not always effective Species at Risk Act (SARA) (2002) = Canadas endangered species law Stresses cooperation between federal government and landowners or provincial governments Criticized as being weak and failing to protect habitat 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

International treaties promote conservation UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973) (CITES) = protects endangered species by banning international transport of their body parts Goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992): Conserve biodiversity Use biodiversity in a sustainable manner Ensure the fair distribution of biodiversitys benefits

Helped African nations gain economic benefit from ecotourism with their wildlife preserves 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. International treaties promote conservation The Convention on Biological Diversity aims to: Provide incentives to conserve biodiversity Manage access to and use of genetic resources Transfer technology (including biotechnology) Promote scientific cooperation

Assess human effects on biodiversity Promote biodiversity education and awareness Provide funding for critical activities Encourage nations to report on conservation efforts Despite some successes, biodiversity is still being lost 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and cloning are being used to save species Captive breeding = individuals are bred and raised

so they can be reintroduced into the wild 65 plant and animal species exist only in captivity Reintroductions can be successful Black rhinos were reintroduced into Serengeti National Park to reestablish that population California condors have been reintroduced and went from 22 to over 230 birds in the wild Reintroductions can be controversial Ranchers opposed reintroducing wolves to

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and cloning are being used to save species Cloning creates more individuals and saves species from extinction DNA from an endangered species is inserted into an egg without a nucleus

The egg is inserted into a closely related species Several mammal species have been cloned But these efforts are not enough to recreate lost biodiversity and do not always succeed Without ample habitat and protection in the wild, having cloned animals in a zoo does little good 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Forensics can help to protect species

Forensic science (forensics) = the analysis of evidence to identify or answer questions relating to a crime Conservation scientists use forensics to protect species Researchers use DNA to identify a species or subspecies and its geographic origin 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Forensics can help to protect species

Detecting illegal activity helps enforce laws protecting wildlife For example, whale meat is analyzed in Asian markets DNA from killed elephants shows many more were killed than the Zambian government realized 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Some species act as umbrellas that protect habitat and communities

Conservation biologists use particular species as tools to conserve communities and ecosystems Umbrella species = species that, when protected, also help protect other, less charismatic species Often large species that need large amounts of habitat Protecting their habitat automatically protects others 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Some species act as umbrellas that protect

habitat and communities Flagship species = large and charismatic species used as spearheads for biodiversity conservation The World Wildlife Funds panda Some organizations are moving beyond the singlespecies approach to focus on whole landscapes 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Parks and protected areas help conserve biodiversity at the ecosystem level

Setting aside land in parks and preserves conserves habitats, communities, ecosystems, and landscapes 13% of the worlds area is set aside in parks, wilderness, reserves, etc. But these areas are not all managed for biodiversity They are used for recreation, water protection, etc. They are also illegally logged, etc. Some are large enough to preserve whole ecosystems Parks can not protect animals that leave the park

boundaries Climate change is altering the habitat in some preserves 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Biodiversity hotspots pinpoint regions of high diversity Biodiversity hotspots = regions most important globally for biodiversity Support a great number of endemic species = species found nowhere else in the world The area must have at least 1500 endemic plant species

(0.5% of the world total) It must have lost 70% of its habitat due to humans 2.3% of the planets land surface contains 50% of the worlds plant species and 42% of all terrestrial vertebrate species Focusing on hotspots protects the greatest number of species per unit effort 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

We can restore degraded ecosystems The best way to safeguard biodiversity and natural systems? Protect natural areas before they become degraded Ecological restoration = process of restoring degraded areas to some semblance of their former condition Also reestablishes the processes that make ecosystems function

Restoration ecology = restoring damaged systems to bring back species and reestablish ecological processes 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Community-based conservation Community-based conservation = approach in which conservation biologists engage local people to protect land and wildlife

Makes protecting the land valuable to the local people 23% of the worlds protected areas were being managed using community-based conservation 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Community-based conservation In East Africa, protecting land was not seen to be benefiting the local people. To encourage local stewardship: Tourism dollars were reallocated to local villages

Some local control over management decisions was given Scientists helped protect crops from wild animals It ensures that local resources can be sustainably used 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Conclusion Biodiversity is being lost rapidly and visibly, threatening mass extinction Primary causes of biodiversity loss are habitat alteration, invasive species, pollution, overharvesting, and climate change Human society cannot function without biodiversitys benefits Science can help save species, preserve habitats, restore populations, and keep natural ecosystems intact

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which concept describes the number of species in an area? a) Species evenness b) Species richness c) Relative abundance d) All of the above describe the number of species in an area.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review What does inbreeding depression result in? a) The species becoming too large for the resource base b) Inferior offspring when genetically similar parents mate c) Superior offspring when genetically similar parents mate d) Increased number and variety of species

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Why does Costa Rica have more bird species than Canada? a) Costa Rica has a more stable climate. b) Canada has a more stable climate. c) Prehistoric glaciers carved out more niches in Costa Rica. d) Canada has higher plant productivity but lower bird

species. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which of the following is the major cause of extinction? a) Invasive species b) Pollution c) Habitat loss d) Overharvesting

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Biodiversity does all of the following EXCEPT a) b) c) d) provide ecosystem services. increase food security.

decrease ecosystem function. provide aesthetic benefits. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which branch of science studies factors behind the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity? a) Conservation biology b) Ecosystem ecology c) Population genetics

d) Demography 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Review Which statement about biodiversity hotspots is NOT correct? a) They must have lost a large percent of habitat due to humans. b) They protect a very high number of species per unit effort.

c) They must be extremely large, taking up a large portion of the Earths surface. d) They contain a large number of endemic species. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Weighing the Issues Many conservation strategies involve protecting a single species. Do you think this is a good approach? a) Yes. Every species is important and should be protected.

b) Yes. By protecting one species, you protect those around it. c) Yes, but only if that species draws attention to the plight of all biodiversity. d) No. We need to think about and work on protecting entire ecosystems. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data After habitat loss, what has the most impact on amphibian species (which affects the second-most

species overall)? a) Disease b) Fires c) Invasive species d) Pollution 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data Which biome has lost the most area? a) Tropical dry forest

b) Desert c) Savanna d) Temperate rainforest 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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