Catholicity The Early Church Period NE District Pastors

Catholicity The Early Church Period NE District Pastors

Catholicity The Early Church Period NE District Pastors Institute April 2013 Catholicity: The Early Church Catholicity Introduction: What does this mean? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQLfgaUoQCw Catholicity: The Early Church

Introduction: We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church Description of what it is? Statement of an ideal; what it ought to be? A promise of what it will be? Dulles, Avery: The Catholicity of the Church Catholicity: The Early Church Introduction: We believe in one holy catholic

and apostolic Church pure / authentic ? universal / total ? Dulles, Avery: The Catholicity of the Church Catholicity: The Early Church Introduction: 16 c Reformation Scripture vs. doctrine th

4 -5 c Donatists vs. Orthodox th Mid 3rd c: Great Church vs. dissidents th 1054 A.D. fullness in

confession and liturgy vs. geographic extention Late 19th c. Harnack Spirit vs. human authority 19th c Tubigen / Oxford Movement:

incarnation / divine indwelling (liturgical piety) Catholicity: The Early Church Introduction: n o ti a m r o f

e R I I WW catholicity Greek Orthodox: adherence to 7 ecumenical councils and fathers Roman Catholic:

geographic extension / visible authority Tubingen / Oxford: divine life mediated by living Church Protestants: falsely claimed divine authority for legalistic / ecclesiastical regulation Catholicity: The Early Church Catholic

Protestant the visible continuity of the Church in the apostolic succession of the episcopate the initiative of the Word of God and the response of faith, focused on the doctrine of justification sola

fide. 1948 Catholicity: The Early Church Catholic : t n e s e m

r s P 1948 sali r e v i n U the visible continuity of the Church in the apostolic succession of the

episcopate Protestant the initiative of the Word of God and the response of faith, focused on the doctrine of justification sola fide. Catholicity: The Early Church Introduction:

Orthodoxy If by orthodoxy we mean an opinion which was held without demur by the entire church body of the faithful, there was no orthodoxy and hence, if you will, no church from the time of Jesus; if we mean the expressed consensus of those prelates who were summoned to general councils, it is easier to discover orthodoxy before Nicaea than in any subsequent period of ecclesiastical history, from the fourth century to our own. Edwards, M. Catholicity and Heresy in the Early Church (p.7) Catholicity: The Early Church

Catholicity Scripture Catholicity: The Early Church What NT Scripture is pertinent to this topic? Any passages that may describe what catholicity looks like? What is the content of catholic apostolic teaching?

4 MIN Catholicity: The Early Church Scriptural Clashes Over Catholicity A. Jews vs. Samaritans B. Pharisees vs. Sadducees C. Jews vs. Jewish Christians D. Jewish Christians vs. Gentile Christians Catholicity: The Early Church The Nature of the NT Church The Ends of the Earth

Samaria Jerusalem Judea Catholicity: The Early Church Catholicity Pre-Nicea Catholicity: The Early Church catholic or not? For in as many days as this world was made, in so many

thousand years shall it be concluded. And for this reason the Scripture says: "Thus the heaven and the earth were finished, and all their adornment. And God brought to a conclusion upon the sixth day the works that He had made; and God rested upon the seventh day from all His works." This is an account of the things formerly created, as also it is a prophecy of what is to come. For the day of the Lord is as a thousand years; and in six days created things were completed: it is evident, therefore, that they will come to an end at the sixth thousand year. Irenaeus, Against All Heresies Catholicity: The Early Church catholic or not?

Go therefore, and declare to the elect of the Lord His mighty works, and tell them that this beast is a type of the great tribulation which is to come. If therefore ye prepare yourselves beforehand, and repent (and turn) unto the Lord with your whole heart, ye shall be able to escape it, if your heart be made pure and without blemish, and if for the remaining days of your life ye serve the Lord blamelessly. Cast your cares upon the Lord and He will set them straight. Hermas, The Shepherd Catholicity: The Early Church catholic or not?

See lest any man lead you astray from this way of righteousness, for he teacheth thee apart from God. For if thou art able to bear the whole yoke of the Lord, thou shalt be perfect; but if thou art not able, do that which thou art able. But concerning eating, bear that which thou art able; yet abstain by all means from meat sacrificed to idols; for it is the worship of dead gods. The Didache Catholicity: The Early Church catholic or not? Ver. 56. "Now the sting of death is sin; and the power of sin

is the law. But how is "the law also the power" thereof? Because without the law sin was weak, being practiced indeed, but not able so entirely to condemn: since although the evil took place, it was not so clearly pointed out. So that it was no small change which the law brought in, first causing us to know sin better, and then enhancing the punishment. And if meaning to check sin it did but develop it more fearfully, this is no charge against the physician, but against the abuse of the remedy. St. John Chrysostum, Homily Catholicity: The Early Church catholic or not?

The occasion must be embraced which puts an end to that which necessity commanded. How detrimental to faith, how obstructive to holiness, second marriages are, the discipline of the Church and the prescription of the apostle declare, when he suffers not men twice married to preside (over a Church), when he would not grant a widow admittance into the order unless she had been the wife of one man; for it behooves Gods altar to be set forth pure. That whole halo which encircles the Church is represented (as consisting) of holiness. Priesthood is (a function) of widowhood and of celibacies among the nations. Tertullian, Ad Uxorem Catholicity: The Early Church

catholic or not? We believe in one God, the Father Almighty; And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, who was begotten of him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; Who came down and was made flesh; and suffered; and rose again; and ascended to the heavens; and shall come again to judge the living and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost; and in the resurrection of the flesh; And in the life of the world to come; and in a kingdom of heaven; And in one Catholic Church of God which extends to the ends of the earth. The Private Creed of Arius, 328 A.D. Catholicity: The Early Church

Irenaeus of Lyon (d.202): Against the Heresies Themes 1. Aseity of God: read the NT in light of the OT 2. The fourfold gospel: the faith transmitted 3. Apostolic succession: the faith ensured Regula Fidei Bk. I.x (http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.ii.xi.html) Catholicity: The Early Church Irenaeus of Lyon (d.202):

Against the Heresies Apostolic succession: the faith ensured The natural place to look for this common tradition was in the agreement of the churches the apostles founded. In other words, apostolicity implies catholicity, universality. - Expositors Bible Commentary, Vol. 1, p.635 Catholicity: The Early Church Irenaeus of Lyon (d.202): Against the Heresies III.3-4 Since therefore we have such proofs, it is not necessary to seek the truth among others which it is easy to obtain from the Church; since the apostles, like a rich man [depositing his

money] in a bank, lodged in her hands most copiously all things pertaining to the truth: so that every man, whosoever will, can draw from her the water of life. For she is the entrance to life; all others are thieves and robbers. On this account are we bound to avoid them, but to make choice of the thing pertaining to the Church with the utmost diligence, and to lay hold of the tradition of the truth. (ANF01 p. 596-600) Catholicity: The Early Church Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386): Catechetical Lectures catholic (kaVq o{lo") 1. Extends to the ends of the earth

2. Teaches all the doctrines needed for salvation 3. Bring every sort of human being under obedience 4. Cures every kind of sin 5. Possesses every form of virtue Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church And the things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men who will also be qualified to teach others. (2Ti 2:2 NIV) Teaching the Teachers: Pastoral Education in the Early Church G. Thompson

Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church NT Era ejpivskopo" diavkono" presbuvtero " poimhvn eujaggelisth v" Mid- 2nd Cent.

Mid- 4th Cent. Bishop District Pastor Presbyter Local Pastor Deacon Assist. Pastor Catholicity: The Early Church

Pastoral Training in the Early Church New Testament One gets the impression that leaders were recognized, then chosen and appointed, not trained. (p.2) Training? Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church 2nd Century Leaders perhaps chosen from among their own

elders Itinerant preachers / teachers? Eusebius: Papias of Hieropoli learned from disciples of the disciples whenever they came (HE 3.39) The Didache: a training manual Justin: oJ proestwv" - led worship, kept the treasury, and taught the people (1 Apol 65-67) Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church 3rd Century Rise of the Expert Teacher Travel to study under well-respected teachers

Spurred on by the rise of heretical movements Origen, Arius, Jerome, Lactantius, Augustine Still, though, not the norm Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church 4th Century The Cursus ( ordo = ordination) Bishop Presbyter Deacon

Sub-deacon Exorcist Lector Acolyte Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church 4th Century Liber Pontificalis: Silvester of Rome Office Minimum Age

Minimum Service Lector 30 Exorcist 30 30 days Acolyte 30

5 years Sub-deacon 30 5 years Custodian of Martyrs 30 5 years

Deacon 35 7 years Priest 42 3 years Bishop 45

------- Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church 4th Century Serdica: Canon 10 (343/44 A.D.) Bishop Hosius said: This also I think it necessary for you to consider most carefully, that if perchance some rich man or professional advocate or ex-official be desired for bishop, he be not ordained until he have fulfilled the ministry of a reader and the office of deacon and presbyter, and so ascend, if he have shown himself worthy, through the several grades to the height of

the episcopate. For by these promotions which in any case take a considerable length of time can be tested his faith, his discretion, his gravity and modesty. And if he be found worthy, let him be honored with the divine sacerdotal office [i.e. the episcopate]. Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church 4th Century A one-week cursus! 374 A.D. Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii

Catholicity: The Early Church Pastoral Training in the Early Church How was doctrinal integrity ensured? Was this the primary consideration? How does catholicity fit into all this? Catholicity: The Early Church The Donatists Challenge the Church

Catholicity: The Early Church 325 A.D. 381 A.D. one holy, catholic, apostolic Church Catholicity: The Early Church AD 250: Christianity at the time of Decian Persecution Catholicity: The Early Church

damnatio ad bestias 3rd cent., El Djem, Tunisia Catholicity: The Early Church Catholicity: The Early Church Cyprian of Carthage Bishop 249 A.D. Decian persecution: early 250s Cyprian flees Carthage Accused by Rome; defense of his plan Eventually dies a martyrs death during

Valerian Persecution (d. 258) Catholicity: The Early Church Cyprian of Carthage Treatise 1: On the Unity of the Church Unity is essentially doctrinal Treatise 3: On the Lapsed His behavior + Cornelius contested election as bishop of Rome (by Novatian) lay the foundation for the

Donatist Controversy 50 yrs. later. Catholicity: The Early Church Donatism A dispute about the true Church and traditores (Mensurius) The practice of rebaptism Augustine rebuking a heretic (13th c. manuscript) Constantines efforts at Arles (314 A.D.) Circumcellions

Catholicity: The Early Church Donatism Nicea 325 A.D. The persecution by Macarius (church vs. state) Augustine rebuking a heretic (13th c. manuscript) Julian the Apostates meddling (361-363 A.D.) Optatus of Milevis; Augustines expansion The Collatio of 411; Honorius law of 412

Catholicity: The Early Church Donatist Theology Sacraments of the outsiders are invalid, since their origin is found in traditores The Church is, in this world, exclusive and pure, a lily among thorns To suffer persecution is a hallmark of the true Church Universality that was not identical with integrity was to be rejected. (W.H.C. Frend, p. 101)* *Orthodoxy, Paganism, and Dissent in the Early Christian Centuries. (2002) Catholicity: The Early Church

Donatist Theology [The Donatists claimed]: The church of Christ has perished from all the world and survived in Africa in the faction of Donatus. It was wiped out in all other lands as if by the contagion of their fellowship. -Augustine De haeresibus ad Quodvultdeus, heresy 69 (quoted by Gerhard, p.53) Catholicity: The Early Church Donatism The Rules of Tyconius (ca 383 A.D.) http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780268075774

Eph 5:27 vs. Songs 1:5-6 How does one harmonize? Augustine rebuking a heretic (13th c. manuscript) Implications for Donatism? The basis of Augustines De Doctrina Christiana Demonstrates the Donatist emphasis on Scripture Catholicity: The Early Church So Who is catholic ?

Catholicity: The Early Church Moreover, in the Catholic Church itself, all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, by all. For that is truly and in the strictest sense Catholic, which, as the name itself and the reason of the thing declare, comprehends all universally. This rule we shall observe if we follow universality, antiquity, consent. We shall follow universality if we confess that one faith to be true, which the whole Church throughout the world confesses; antiquity, if we in no wise depart from those interpretations which it is manifest were notoriously held by our holy ancestors and fathers; consent, in like manner, if in antiquity itself we adhere to

the consentient definitions and determinations of all, or at the least of almost all priests and doctors. -Vincent of Lerins, Commonitorium ca 434 A.D. Catholicity: The Early Church The 7 Ecumenical Councils Catholicity: The Early Church Catholicity and the Early Church: Above all, the early churchs contributions to the faith are: Solus Christus Trinitarianism

Sola Scriptura Baptism Catholicity: The Early Church Catholicity and the Early Church: Sola Scriptura Nicene Creed: who has spoken by the prophets Augustines correspondence with Jerome: I appeal to the apostle Paul against all commentators on his Epistles. Catholicity: The Early Church

Catholicity and the Early Church: The value in looking for it? The drawbacks / dangers in looking for it? Catholicity: The Early Church Orthodox may be a word to avoid, but some sort of terminology has to be applied. There never was a Garden of Eden for Christian theologians, in which no envious opponent would challenge ones right to hold any speculative theory while remaining Christian, nor any bishop exclude the disciples of teachers with minority views. At the same time, it is right to be wary of too many distinctions: Christians were part of a small minority

movement, still in 200 and all the more in 100. At the temporal distance from which we look at early Christians, the similarities between them are more important than the differences. - P. McKechnie, The First Christian Centuries: Perspectives on the Early Church (p.19) Catholicity: The Early Church finis

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