Lecture Outline Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar

Lecture Outline Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar

Lecture Outline Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 A Brief Tour of the Solar System Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What does the solar system look like? The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion.

These patterns are far more important and interesting than numbers, names, and other trivia. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What does the solar system look like? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What does the solar system look like?

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What does the solar system look like? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What does the solar system look like?

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Planets are very tiny compared to distances between them. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sun

Over 99.8% of solar system's mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma) Converts 4 million tons of mass into energy each second

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mercury Made of metal and rock; large iron core

Desolate, cratered; long, tall, steep cliffs Very hot and very cold: 425C (day), 170C (night) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Venus

Nearly identical in size to Earth; surface hidden by clouds Hellish conditions due to an extreme greenhouse effect Even hotter than Mercury: 470C, day and night 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth

Earth and Moon to scale An oasis of life The only surface liquid water in the solar system

A surprisingly large moon 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mars Looks almost Earth-like, but don't go without a spacesuit! Giant volcanoes, a huge canyon, polar caps, and more Water flowed in the distant past; could there have been life?

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter Much farther from Sun than inner planets Mostly H/He; no solid surface 300 times more

massive than Earth Many moons, rings 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter's moons can be as interesting as planets themselves, especially Jupiter's

four Galilean moons. Io (shown here): Active volcanoes all over Europa: Possible subsurface ocean

Ganymede: Largest moon in solar system Callisto: A large, cratered "ice ball" 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Saturn

Giant and gaseous like Jupiter Spectacular rings Many moons, including cloudy Titan Cassini spacecraft currently studying it 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Rings are NOT solid; they are made of countless small chunks of ice and rock, each orbiting like a

tiny moon. Artist's conception of Saturn's rings 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cassini probe arrived in July 2004 (launched in 1997). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Uranus Smaller than

Jupiter/Saturn; much larger than Earth Made of H/He gas and hydrogen compounds (H2O, NH3, CH4) Extreme axis tilt Moons and rings

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Neptune Similar to Uranus (except for axis tilt) Many moons (including Triton) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pluto and Other Dwarf Planets Much smaller than other planets Icy, comet-like composition Pluto's moon Charon is similar in size to Pluto 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What have we learned?

What does the solar system look like? Planets are tiny compared to the distances between them. Each world has its own character, but there are many clear patterns. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.2 The Nebular Theory of Solar System

Formation Our goals for learning: What features of our solar system provide clues to how it formed? What is the nebular theory? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What features of our solar system provide

clues to how it formed? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Motion of Large Bodies All large bodies in the solar system orbit in the same direction and in

nearly the same plane. Most also rotate in that direction. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Two Major Planet Types Terrestrial planets

are rocky, relatively small, and close to the Sun. Jovian planets are gaseous, larger, and farther from the Sun. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Swarms of Smaller Bodies Many rocky asteroids and icy comets populate the solar system. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Notable Exceptions

Several exceptions to normal patterns need to be explained. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the nebular theory?

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from a giant cloud of interstellar gas.

(nebula = cloud) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Origin of the Nebula Elements that formed planets were made in stars and then

recycled through interstellar space. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Evidence from Other Gas Clouds We can see stars forming in other

interstellar gas clouds, lending support to the nebular theory. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What have we learned? What features of our solar system provide clues

to how it formed? Motions of large bodies: All in same direction and plane Two major planet types: Terrestrial and jovian Swarms of small bodies: Asteroids and comets Notable exceptions: Rotation of Uranus, Earth's large moon, and so forth 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

What have we learned? What is the nebular theory? The nebular theory holds that our solar system formed from a cloud of interstellar gas. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.3 Explaining the Major Features of the

Solar System Our goals for learning: What caused the orderly patterns of motion? Why are there two major types of planets? Where did asteroids and comets come from? How do we explain the "exceptions to the rules"? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

What caused the orderly patterns of motion? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Orbital and Rotational Properties of the Planets 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation of Angular Momentum

The rotation speed of the cloud from which our solar system formed must have increased as the cloud contracted. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotation of a contracting cloud speeds up for the

same reason a skater speeds up as she pulls in her arms. Collapse of the Solar Nebula 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Flattening

Collisions between particles in the cloud caused it to flatten into a disk. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. INSERT Formation_Circular_Orbits.jpg Formation of Circular Orbits 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Collisions between gas particles in a cloud gradually reduce random motions. Collisions between gas particles also

reduce up and down motions. Why Does the Disk Flatten? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The spinning cloud flattens as it shrinks.

Formation of the Protoplanetary Disk 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Disks Around Other Stars Observations of disks around other stars support the nebular hypothesis. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why are there two major types of planets? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation of Energy As gravity causes the cloud to contract, it heats up.

Collapse of the Solar Nebula 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Inner parts of the disk are hotter than outer parts. Rock can be

solid at much higher temperatures than ice. Temperature Distribution of the Disk and the Frost Line 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Inside the frost line: Too hot for hydrogen compounds to form ices

Outside the frost line: Cold enough for ices to form 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of Terrestrial Planets Small particles of rock and metal were present inside the frost line. Planetesimals of rock and metal built up as these particles collided. Gravity eventually assembled these

planetesimals into terrestrial planets. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tiny solid particles stick to form planetesimals.

Summary of the Condensates in the Protoplanetary Disk 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gravity draws planetesimals together to form planets. This process of assembly

is called accretion. Summary of the Condensates in the Protoplanetary Disk 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Accretion of Planetesimals Many smaller objects collected into just a few large ones.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of Jovian Planets Ice could also form small particles outside the frost line. Larger planetesimals and planets were able to form. The gravity of these larger planets was able to draw in surrounding H and He gases.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The gravity of rock and ice in jovian planets draws in H and He gases.

Nebular Capture and the Formation of the Jovian Planets 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Moons of jovian planets form in miniature disks. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Radiation and outflowing matter from the

Sunthe solar wind blew away the leftover gases. The Solar Wind 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Where did asteroids and comets come

from? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Asteroids and Comets Leftovers from the accretion process Rocky asteroids inside frost line Icy comets outside frost line

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Heavy Bombardment Leftover planetesimals bombarded other objects in the late stages of solar system

formation. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Origin of Earth's Water Water may have come to Earth by way of icy planetesimals

from the outer solar system. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How do we explain "exceptions to the rules"? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Captured Moons The unusual moons of some planets may be captured planetesimals. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Giant Impact

then accreted into the Moon. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Odd Rotation Giant impacts might also explain the different rotation axes

of some planets. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Review of the nebular theory 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Thought Question How would the solar system be different if the solar nebula had cooled with a temperature half its current value? A. Jovian planets would have formed closer to the Sun. B. There would be no asteroids. C. There would be no comets.

D. Terrestrial planets would be larger. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question How would the solar system be different if the solar nebula had cooled with a temperature half its current value? A. Jovian planets would have formed closer to the Sun.

B. There would be no asteroids. C. There would be no comets. D. Terrestrial planets would be larger. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question Which of these facts is NOT explained by the nebular theory? A. There are two main types of planets: terrestrial

and jovian. B. Planets orbit in the same direction and plane. C. Asteroids and comets exist. D. There are four terrestrial and four jovian planets. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question Which of these facts is NOT explained by the

nebular theory? A. There are two main types of planets: terrestrial and jovian. B. Planets orbit in the same direction and plane. C. Asteroids and comets exist. D. There are four terrestrial and four jovian planets. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.4 The Age of the Solar System Our goals for learning: How do we know the age of the solar system? 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How do we know the age of the solar system? We cannot find the age of a planet, but we can

find the ages of the rocks that make it up. We can determine the age of a rock through careful analysis of the proportions of various atoms and isotopes within it. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Radioactive Decay Some isotopes

decay into other nuclei. A half-life is the time for half the nuclei in a substance to decay. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Thought Question Suppose you find a rock originally made of potassium-40, half of which decays into argon-40 every 1.25 billion years. You open the rock and find 15 atoms of argon-40 for every atom of potassium40. How long ago did the rock form? A. 1.25 billion years ago B. 2.5 billion years ago C. 3.75 billion years ago

D. 5 billion years ago 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question Suppose you find a rock originally made of potassium-40, half of which decays into argon-40 every 1.25 billion years. You open the rock and find 15 atoms of argon-40 for every atom of potassium40. How long ago did the rock form? A. 1.25 billion years ago

B. 2.5 billion years ago C. 3.75 billion years ago D. 5 billion years ago 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dating the Solar System Age dating of meteorites that are unchanged since

they condensed and accreted tells us that the solar system is about 4.6 billion years old. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Dating the Solar System

Radiometric dating tells us that the oldest moon rocks are 4.4 billion years old. The oldest meteorites are 4.55 billion years old. Planets probably formed 4.5 billion years ago. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What have we learned? How do we know the age of the solar system?

Astronomers use radiometric dating to determine the ages of meteorites and rocks from various solar system bodies. This technique indicates that planets formed 4.5 billion years ago. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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