Team 12 Cycle B Galveston Hurricane of 1900 EDTC 6341.63 November 13, 2011 Problem Statement Team Nekton will investigate the causes of Hurricanes, by looking at winds, storm surge, vulnerability. We will review past Hurricanes and provide recommendations to improve Hurricane preparedness and
readiness. Hurricane Galveston 1900 > Spheres Lithospher e Atmospher e Galveston Hurricane Of 1900 Hydrosphe re Biosphere
E > Atmosphere The growth of the hurricanes is dependant of the ocean and the atmosphere. The oceans water temperature must be warmer than 26.5 oC or 81oF. The winds speed and altitude direction known as wind shear is also a contributing factor in the formation of hurricanes. Yellow, orange and red represent waters warm enough for hurricane formation. E > Atmosphere
High wind shear develops when wind speed is increasing with height. Thus, the storm grows the storm is slanted downwind reducing the chances of a hurricane formation. When little or no wind shear is present, storms are able to grow vertically increasing the chances of hurricane formation. E > Hydrosphere The effects of a hurricane on the Hydrosphere is that it causes the overflow of rivers, lakes, and the creation of storm surge on the coast.
In some cases rivers can create new paths to flow in because of the amount of water that flows through them during a hurricane during the massive amounts of rain that a hurricane can produce. E > Lithosphere Hurricane force winds can also affect the lithosphere. The high winds associated with the hurricane can result in erosion the beaches and the surrounding area.
Debris such as roofing material, siding and small items left outside become projectiles during the storm. E > Lithosphere cont. The blowing debris will also damage the top layer of the lithosphere. The multiple layers of the earth's lithosphere will continue to be worn down by the trees and other plant life will be uprooted, damaging the lithosphere.
E > Biosphere Negative effects: Floods: floods brought on by a hurricane destroy earths vegetation, effect soil, and can cause the death of many animals and humans. If death is not brought on by starvation do to the loss of the vegetation, it can be brought on by the flood itself by drowning. E > Biosphere Cont. Floods can also pollute drinking water and cause the spread of disease
throughout the lands when foreign items fall into the drinking water supply. Strong winds bring down many trees which are home to many living creatures. cont. E > Biosphere Positive effects: A hurricane's high winds stir up the ocean waters and help bring nutrients and phytoplankton to the surface, where they get more sunlight, allowing the plants to bloom (NASA). phytoplankton blooms may
also affect the Earth's climate and carbon cycle(NASA). Vegetation and soil can be brought to other areas when blown up and away by a hurricane. Spheres > Spheres Interactions Lithosphere <>Hydrosphere Hurricanes produce massive flooding, high winds and windborne debris which threaten human safety. Floodwater moves rock sediments and can uproot trees and can cause harm to humans and animals. The mixture of debris can produce massive landslide damage to regions with lack of root structures and may experience more erosion.
Standing waters and flooding cause respiratory diseases. Lithosphere <> Biosphere Increase rainfall, powerful winds and erosion may cause landslides to occur destroying homes, lives, crops, roads, bridges, livestock and vegetation. Cont. Sphere <> Interactions Lithosphere <> Atmosphere Lithosphere: Hurricanes can cause erosion in beaches and areas around the coast line from where the hurricane came from. Hurricanes rip plant life such as trees out of the
ground, causing damage to the top layer of the lithosphere as well as other layers the roots of the tree Atmosphere: The uplifted plants can cause much dirt and debris into the air that we breathe. Less trees can also mean a change in climate do to evapotranspiration, carbon sequestration, and photosynthesis process of removing
carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. Hydrosphere > Biosphere Hydrosphere : Hurricanes can bring floods, which can in return pull land debris into the ocean or drinking Biosphere: Floods can ruin
vegetation, which in return ruin food for animals and humans. Biosphere <> Atmosphere First of all the biosphere is the part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life. The atmosphere is the part of the earth or any celestial body that surrounds or envelopes it. The interaction between the two is that they are interacting with each other constantly and deal with the transportation of materials from
one to the other through atmospheric events such as rain and wind. Catastrophic events such as tornadoes and hurricanes amplify the interaction and cause an increase in the exchange between the two. Cont. Spheres <> Interactions Hydrosphere <> Atmosphere Hurricanes only form from warm ocean water. The waters temperature must be at least 26 degrees Celsius.
Warm air rises from the warming ocean. The air carries water vapor , the gas form of water. The water vapor cools as it rises. It turns back into a liquid. This condensation forms clouds, releasing heat energy into the air at the same time. The large, dark clouds high above ground are photographed by a passenger on an airplane entering the center of Hurricane Eloise. The large, dark clouds high above ground are photographed by a passenger on an airplane entering the center of Hurricane Eloise. NOAA
Cont. Spheres <> Interactions Hydrosphere <> Atmosphere As evaporation and condensation continue, the air pressure at the surface of the ocean goes down. That lets more water vapor into the air. That vapor rises higher, where it condenses and releases still more energy. The cloud columns grow higher and larger. In this way, a hurricane is a storm that feeds itself. The more it grows, the more energy it releases. The more energy it releases, the Team Recommendations During a hurricane, water and air are critical elements that can cause serious
damage to buildings, lives and the ecosystem. According to Hurricane Science Organization, residents must determine if their residence is at risk due to flooding, become knowledgeable where to evacuate incase of severe wind and flooding threats and purchase flood insurance and understand the insurance coverage. Families should develop a family disaster plan to ensure everyone knows step-by-step what to do should a catastrophic event may occur. Families can consult the State Emergency Management Agency websites. Team Recommendations cont. Maintain home inventory to ensure all personal possessions are accounted for and insured.
Prepare a disaster preparation kit that includes but not limited to: cash; important documents, water, non-perishable food, medication/ first aid kit, flashlights, batteries, battery operated radio, full gas tank in vehicle and backpack with cloths. In an approaching storm, keep in form by watching, listening to news weather. Government codes require builders to make hurricane prone areas to use impact protection on windows, roofs and doors. Team Recommendations *The following websites offers useful and great information. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/disaste r_prevention.shtml http:// miami.about.com/od/natureenvironment/ht/hu rricaneprep.htm http://www.epa.gov/hurricanes/
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