# Statistical data analysis and research methods BMI504 Course

Statistical data analysis and research methods BMI504 Course 22903 Spring 2017 Class 2 Feb 8, 2017 Philosophy of science and ontology Werner CEUSTERS C2. Philosophy of science and ontology Pre class reading: none. Class structure:

Part 1: interactive lecture covering an introduction to the philosophical basis of research with a special focus on Ontological Realism. Part 2: application of the previous through a guided discussion on what counts as mental disease. in-class application test. Post-class assignment: Write a 2-page essay on one or other position taken (or defended) by Kirsti Malterud in the paper, Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice: Why and how?, with which you disagree and build up an argumentation in light of what you learned in classes 1 and 2 and/or additional literature. Deadline:

In-class application test Students will be presented with three evolving scenarios about behaviors in some populations. Each scenario will add some more observations about the populations. Students will be asked to suggest for each scenario hypotheses about the observed behaviors and specify a research method and analysis procedure for each hypothesis. For the 2nd and 3rd scenario, they will also need to indicate which hypotheses from the previous scenario(s), if any at all, can be ruled out on the basis of the new observations. A planet with tribal humanoids is discovered

O1: we are told about a tribe T1 on one side of a planet. We are told that when a humanoid of that tribe slaps another one in the face, (1) the other one often slaps back, (2) rarely the 2nd one spits the slapper in the face, and (3) nobody spits first. We want to find out why, jump in our spacecraft and start to observe the tribe. We are able to see all they do outside, but have no means to interact with them. A. B. C. D. Interesting questions: Hypotheses: Testable predictions:

What data to gather? Scoring 10%: Contribution of - and balance between - imagination and personal human zoo experiences in raising sufficiently distinct questions, hypotheses, proposed observables and testable predictions; 10%: The degree to which the predictions that would confirm the hypotheses are documented to be testable; 20%: The quality of the argument(s) used to assert the testability of the predictions; 20%: The extend to which observables proposed for testing predictions are described in terms of objective and interpretative features;

20%: The argumentation used to assess the plausibility of hypotheses forwarded in previous scenarios in light of new observations in later scenarios. 20%: The quality of the conclusion in terms of the most plausible hypothesis for the behavior of humanoids of the two distinct Part 1 Philosophical basis Roughly: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/doing-goodscience/what-is-philosophy-of-science-andshould-scientists-care/ Philosophy of Science (PhyS) ? a rigorous academic study that deals specifically with what science is, how it works, and the logic through which

we build scientific knowledge. http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/philosophy a general philosophy of science seeks to describe and understand how science works within a wide range of sciences. Malcolm Forster. An Introduction to Philosophy of Science, 2004. philosophy of science should help us look at claims made within science, and claims made about science, and should help us make informed judgments about how and what we are to think about each case. http://www.thegreatcourses.com/professors/jeffrey-l-kasser/ Philosophy of Science (PhyS) ? a rigorous academic study that deals specifically with

what science is, how it works, and the logic through which we build scientific knowledge. http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/philosophy a general philosophy of science seeks to describe and understand how science works within a wide range of sciences. Malcolm Forster. An Introduction to Philosophy of Science, 2004. philosophy of science should help us look at claims made within science, and claims made about science, and should help us make informed judgments about how and what we are to think about each case. http://www.thegreatcourses.com/professors/jeffrey-l-kasser/ Keywords?

Philosophy of Science (PhyS) ? a rigorous academic study that deals specifically with what science is, how it works, and the logic through which we build scientific knowledge. http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/philosophy a general philosophy of science seeks to describe and understand how science works within a wide range of sciences. Malcolm Forster. An Introduction to Philosophy of Science, 2004. philosophy of science should help us look at claims made within science, and claims made about science, and should help us make informed judgments about how and what we are to think about each case.

http://www.thegreatcourses.com/professors/jeffrey-l-kasser/ Keywords? Philosophy of Science (PhyS) ? a rigorous academic study that deals specifically with what science is, how it works, and the logic through which we build scientific knowledge. http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/philosophy a general philosophy of science seeks to describe and understand how science works within a wide range of sciences. Malcolm Forster. An Introduction to Philosophy of Science, 2004. philosophy of science should help us look at claims made

within science, and claims made about science, and should help us make informed judgments about how and what we are to think about each case. http://www.thegreatcourses.com/professors/jeffrey-l-kasser/ Keywords? http://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/philosophy-ofscience.html#BVRRWidgetID Science and Philosophy Popper and the Problem of Demarcation Further Thoughts on Demarcation Einstein, Measurement, and Meaning Classical Empiricism Logical Positivism and Verifiability Logical Positivism, Science, and

Meaning Holism Discovery and Justification Induction as Illegitimate Some Solutions and a New Riddle Instances and Consequences Kuhn and the Challenge of History Revolutions and Rationality Assessment of Kuhn For and Against Method Sociology, Postmodernism, and Science Topics in PhyS Putting the Cause Back in

"Because" Probability, Pragmatics, and Unification Laws and Regularities Laws and Necessity Reduction and Progress Reduction and Physicalism New Views of Meaning and Reference Scientific Realism Success, Experience, and Explanation Realism and Naturalism Values and Objectivity Probability Bayesianism

Problems with Bayesianism Roughly: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/doing-goodscience/what-is-philosophy-of-science-andshould-scientists-care/ Philosophy of science: use(ful/less)? Philosophy of science is about as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. Attributed to Richard Feynman in Donald E. Simanek and John C. Holden, Science Askew: A Light-Hearted Look at the Scientific World (Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2002) , 215. Feynman photo Richard Hartt/Caltech archives

Philosophy of science: use(ful/less)? Philosophy of science is about as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. Attributed to Richard Feynman in Donald E. Simanek and John C. Holden, Science Askew: A Light-Hearted Look at the Scientific World (Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2002) , 215. Feynman photo Richard Hartt/Caltech archives Science can't be free of philosophy any more than baseball can be free of physics. Jeffrey L. Kasser, Ph.D.

http://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/philosoph y-of-science.html#BVRRWidgetID A scientist reviewer about: I have advanced degrees in scientific fields and purchased this course with great interest.

The presenter appears to be reading from a manuscript and at a speed far too fast for the complexity of the material he is presenting. The early lecture on the "Demarcation Problem" is a classic example of what I term philo-babble. Philo-babble is an attempt to carry on extended discussions, often reaching startling results, about a subject that is never defined. In this case, the presenter tries to talk about what is real science without ever defining what science is! The presenter's prose becomes mostly unintelligible, at times resembling a "word-salad". You will frequently ask yourself " What on earth is he talking about ?" The examples used are absurd and involve things such as dragon's and invented terms. The best he can do with actual real world science is Copernicus, Kepler, plus a little Newton and Einstein . There is no real treatment of current problems crying for philosophical analysis, such as string theory and quantum mechanics.

A philosopher reviewer about: Great for hard-core philosophy-enthusiasts: This course is great for hard-core philosophyenthusiasts, definitely not something to listen to with half an ear. It covers more material and in better depth than do many university introductory courses in the philosophy of science. (Much more than I do in MY philosophy of science course!) Be prepared to listen to some of the lectures more than once. Another scientist reviewer: Although much of my research has involved quantum mechanical

analysis of atomic nuclei, I have for years been telling people that I was not sure that I really believed in atoms. They want to know how it could be that I am devoting my career to scientific work involving atoms if I have doubts about whether atoms exist! Frankly, I was never sure how to answer this question. I have found it truly thrilling when a detailed quantum mechanical analysis leads to a prediction that is confirmed by experiment, a prediction that I could never have guessed without first doing the analysis. It is impossible not to feel that there is something beautiful and powerful in the scientific theories that I am using, but does this definitely establish beyond any doubt that they are "true"? Particularly since atoms are so much smaller than any particles that we can see directly with our eyes, how could we definitively establish that atoms exist? The great gift of this course is that it taught me how to think about questions of this sort.

Questions addressed in PhyS (1) What exactly is science? How to differentiate from pseudoscience? www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3700qst.doc Definitions of science (1) 3a : knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method 3b : such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena: natural science http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/science Definitions of science (2)

Science is a systematic search for knowledge whose validity does not depend on the particular individual but is open for anyone to check or rediscover. Hansson, Sven Ove, "Science and Pseudo-Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/pseudo-science/. Definitions of science (3) Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. http://sciencecouncil.org/about-us/our-definition-of-science/ What sort of question is asked for which

these keywords are part of adequate answers? Science and Philosophy Popper and the Problem of Demarcation Further Thoughts on Demarcation Einstein, Measurement, and Meaning Classical Empiricism Logical Positivism and Verifiability Logical Positivism, Science, and Meaning Holism Discovery and Justification Induction as Illegitimate Some Solutions and a New Riddle Instances and Consequences Kuhn and the Challenge of History Revolutions and Rationality

Assessment of Kuhn For and Against Method Sociology, Postmodernism, and Science Putting the Cause Back in "Because" Probability, Pragmatics, and Unification Laws and Regularities Laws and Necessity Reduction and Progress Reduction and Physicalism New Views of Meaning and Reference Scientific Realism Success, Experience, and

Explanation Realism and Naturalism Values and Objectivity Probability Bayesianism Problems with Bayesianism Questions addressed in PhyS (2) What exactly is science? How to differentiate from pseudoscience? www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3700qst.doc

Some key principles in how to do science Objective observation: measurement and data (possibly although not necessarily using mathematics as a tool), Evidence, Experiment and/or observation as benchmarks for testing hypotheses, Induction: reasoning to establish general rules or conclusions drawn from facts or examples, Repetition,

Critical analysis, Verification and testing: critical exposure to scrutiny, peer review and assessment. http://sciencecouncil.org/about-us/our-definition-of-science/ Identifying pseudoscience

Belief in authority: It is contended that some have a special ability to determine what is true or false. Others must accept their judgments. Unrepeatable experiments: Reliance is put on experiments that cannot be repeated by others with the same outcome. Handpicked examples: are used although they are not representative of the general category that the investigation refers to. Unwillingness to test: A theory is not tested although it can be. Disregard of refuting information: Observations or experiments that conflict with a theory are neglected. Built-in subterfuge: The testing of a theory is so arranged that the theory can only be confirmed, never disconfirmed, by the outcome. Explanations are abandoned without replacement. Tenable

Hansson, Sven Ove, "Science and Pseudo-Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2015 Edition), explanations are given being replaced, so that the Edward N. Zaltaup (ed.).without https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/pseudo-science/. A List Of Fallacious Arguments http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html E.g.: False Compromise: if one does not understand a debate, it must be "fair" to split

the difference, and agree on a compromise between the opinions. (But one side is very possibly wrong, and in any case one could simply suspend judgment.) Journalists often invoke this fallacy in the name of "balanced" coverage. "Some say the sun rises in the east, some say it rises in the west; the truth lies probably somewhere in between." Television reporters like balanced coverage so much that they may give half of their report to a view held by a small minority of the people in question. There are many possible reasons for this, some of them good. However, viewers need to be aware

of this tendency. What sort of question is asked for which these keywords are part of adequate answers? Science and Philosophy Popper and the Problem of Demarcation Further Thoughts on Demarcation Einstein, Measurement, and Meaning Classical Empiricism Logical Positivism and Verifiability Logical Positivism, Science, and Meaning Holism Discovery and Justification Induction as Illegitimate Some Solutions and a New Riddle

Instances and Consequences Kuhn and the Challenge of History Revolutions and Rationality Assessment of Kuhn For and Against Method Sociology, Postmodernism, and Science Putting the Cause Back in "Because" Probability, Pragmatics, and Unification Laws and Regularities Laws and Necessity Reduction and Progress Reduction and Physicalism New Views of Meaning and

Reference Scientific Realism Success, Experience, and Explanation Realism and Naturalism Values and Objectivity Probability Bayesianism Problems with Bayesianism Questions addressed in PhyS (3) What exactly is science? How to differentiate from pseudoscience? Is there a single basic method of science? If there are several, what makes them all "scientific"?

www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3700qst.doc One or more? Philosophy of Science (PhyS) versus Philosophies of Science (PhieS) Many philosophies of science https://plato.stanford.edu/search/search?query=%22Philosophy+of+Science%22 Questions addressed in PhyS (4) What exactly is science? How to differentiate from pseudoscience?

Is there a single basic method of science? If there are several, what makes them all "scientific"? Is science the best way to know about the world? Is science compatible with religion, or do they conflict? If they conflict, which one should we believe? What is a scientific theory? How should scientists decide which among competing theories to accept? Why do scientists sometimes disagree with each other, even when they have the same data? Could fully rational scientists have such disagreements? What is scientific progress? Does it really exist? Is science getting us closer and closer to the Truth? www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3700qst.doc Which questions addressed in PhyS should scientists deeply care about?

What exactly is science? How to differentiate from pseudoscience? Is there a single basic method of science? If there are several, what makes them all "scientific"? Is science the best way to know about the world? Is science compatible with religion, or do they conflict? If they conflict, which one should we believe? What is a scientific theory? How should scientists decide which among competing theories to accept? Why do scientists sometimes disagree with each other, even when they have the same data? Could fully rational scientists have such disagreements? What is scientific progress? Does it really exist? Is science getting us closer and closer to the Truth? www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3700qst.doc Which questions addressed in PhyS should scientists deeply care about?

What exactly is science? How to differentiate from pseudoscience? Is there a single basic method of science? If there are several, what makes them all "scientific"? What makes your approach scientific? Is science the best way to know about the world? Is science compatible with religion, or do they conflict? If they conflict, which one should we believe? What is a scientific theory? How should scientists decide which among competing theories to accept? Why do scientists sometimes disagree with each other, even when they have the same data? Could fully rational scientists have such disagreements? www.hu.mtu.edu/~tlockha/h3700qst.doc What is scientific progress? Does it really exist? Is science

Some key notions from PhyS useful for (future) scientists Ontology Helps scientists to determine and describe what sorts of entities their research is intended to be directed at. Four notions of ontology as a study (O1) the study of ontological commitment, i.e. what we or others are committed to, (O2) the study of what there is, (O3) the study of the most general features of what there is, and how the things there are relate to each other in the metaphysically most general

ways, (O4) the study of meta-ontology, i.e. saying what task it is that the discipline of ontology should aim to accomplish, if any, how the questions it aims to answer should be understood, and with what methodology they can be answered. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ontology/#DifConOnt Realism Generic Realism (on some subject matter): a, b, and c and so on exist, and the fact that they exist and have properties such as F-ness, G-ness, and H-ness is (apart from mundane empirical dependencies of the sort sometimes encountered in everyday life) independent of anyone's beliefs, linguistic practices,

conceptual schemes, and so on. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism/ The basis of Ontological Realism (O.R.) 1. There is an external reality which is objectively the way it is; 2. That reality is accessible to us; 3. We build in our brains cognitive representations of reality; 4. We communicate with

others about what is there, we believe Smith B, Kusnierczyk W, Schober D, Ceustersand W. Towardswhat a Reference Terminology for Ontology Researchthere and Development in the Biomedical Domain. Proceedings of KR-MED 2006, Biomedical Ontology in Action, November 8, 2006, Baltimore MD, USA L3 L2 Linguistic representations about (L1-), (L2) or (L3) Beliefs about (1)

Re pr es e nt at i on s First Order Reality L1- Entities (particular or generic) with objective existence

which are not about anything Scientific Realism Three dimensions: Metaphysically: Semantically: Epistemologically: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-realism/#WhaSciRea Relevant disciplines and theories Ontology

by some philosophers taken to be synonymous with metaphysics while others draw distinctions in many distinct ways but almost agreeing on the following classification: metaphysics general metaphysics ontology special metaphysics epistemology: terminology (as part of semantics):

Relevant disciplines and theories Ontology (no plural) is the study of what entities exist and how they relate to each other; by some philosophers taken to be synonymous with metaphysics while others draw distinctions in many distinct ways but almost agreeing on the following classification: metaphysics studies how is the world? general metaphysics studies general principles and laws about the world

ontology studies what type of entities exist in the world special metaphysics focuses on specific principles and entities epistemology: the study of how we can come to know about what exists. terminology (as part of semantics): the study of what terms mean and how to name things. Distinct questions. What type are they of? Terminological: what does pain mean ? Metaphysical: what have all pains in common in virtue of which

they are pains? Ontological: what type of entity is pain? Onto-terminological: what, if anything at all, does pain denote? Epistemological: how can we find out whether something is pain? 45 Scientific Realism Three dimensions: Metaphysically: commits to the mind-independent existence of the world investigated by the sciences. Semantically: commits to a literal interpretation of

scientific claims about the world. Claims about scientific entities, processes, properties, and relations, whether they be observable or unobservable, should be construed literally as having truth values, whether true or false. Epistemologically: commits to the idea that theoretical claims (interpreted literally as describing a mind-independent reality) constitute knowledge of http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-realism/#WhaSciRea the world. Scientific Realism Our best scientific theories give true or approximately true descriptions of observable and unobservable aspects of a mindindependent world.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-realism/#WhaSciRea Research What researchers do when realizing their roles as scientists Definition of research 1. careful or diligent search 2. studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at - the discovery and interpretation of facts, - revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts,

- or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws 3. the collecting of information about a particular subject http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/research Definition of research Keywords? 1. careful or diligent search 2. studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at - the discovery and interpretation of facts, - revision of accepted theories or laws in the

light of new facts, - or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws 3. the collecting of information about a particular subject http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/research Definition of research keywords 1. careful or diligent search 2. studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at - the discovery and interpretation of facts,

- revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, - or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws 3. the collecting of information about a particular subject http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/research Keywords in research Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about its existence. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before

Keywords in research Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about it. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before Facts: F1: I am currently teaching F2: I am currently teaching F3: 2 + 2 = 4

Keywords in research Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about it. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before Facts: F1: I am currently teaching F2: I am currently teaching F3: 2 + 2 = 4

How do F1, F2, resp. F3, relate to D1, D2? Keywords in research Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about it. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before Facts: F1: I am currently teaching

D1 F2: I am currently teaching D1 & D2 F3: 2 + 2 = 4 D2 Keywords in research Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about it. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before

Facts: F1: I am currently teaching D1 F2: I am currently teaching D1 & D2 F3: 2 + 2 = 4 D2 How do F1, F2, resp. F3, relate to L1-, L2, L3? Keywords in research

Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about it. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before Facts: F1: I am currently teaching D1 L1 F2: I am currently teaching D1 & D2 L3 / L1 F3: 2 + 2 = 4 D2 L3 (/ L1-?) Keywords in research

Discovery: D1: there is something existing which is prior to our knowing about it. D2: There is something we come to know we didnt know before Facts: F1: I am currently teaching D1 L1 F2: I am currently teaching D1 & D2 L3 / L1 F3: 2 + 2 = 4

D2 L3 (/ L1-?) Interpretation: F1 is truth-maker for F2 when F2 is uttered when F1 is happening F1 is truth-maker for I was teaching when uttered after F1 ceased to be the case. What is the truth-maker for F3? Logic helps scientists to build arguments for the correctness of their conclusions Four notions of Logic (L1)

The study of artificial formal languages; e.g. properties of predicate logic studied in model theory. (L2) The study of formally valid inferences and logical consequence; e.g. IF A then B: A, therefor: B not B, therefor: not A (L3) The study of logical truths; the most general truths, ones that are contained in any

other body of truths that any other science aims to describe. (L4) The study of the general features, or form, of judgements (Kant). Deduction and induction (1) A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be (deductively) valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument's premises (assumptions) are true. http://www.iep.utm.edu/ded-ind/

Valid and sound (deductive) arguments A deductive argument is said to be valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false. Otherwise, a deductive argument is said to be invalid. A deductive argument is sound if and only if it is both valid, and all of its premises are actually true. Otherwise, a deductive argument is unsound. http://www.iep.utm.edu/val-snd/

Valid argument? A deductive argument is said to be valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false. Otherwise, a deductive argument is said to be invalid. Patients always consult a doctor and follow the advice given. Doctors advices are always such that when they are followed, patients get better. Therefore, patients always get better. http://www.iep.utm.edu/val-snd/ Sound argument? A deductive argument is sound if and only if it

is both valid, and all of its premises are actually true. Otherwise, a deductive argument is unsound. If I get stuck in a traffic jam, I come home late. If I come home late, I eat late. If I eat late, I eat. Yesterday, I got stuck in a traffic jam. Therefore, I ate. http://www.iep.utm.edu/val-snd/ Deduction and induction (2) A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be (deductively) valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument's premises (assumptions) are true.

An inductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer merely to establish or increase the probability of its conclusion. In an inductive argument, the premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely that the conclusion is false. http://www.iep.utm.edu/ded-ind/ The Scientific Method A name for a quite generally accepted scientific method The Scientific Method Keywords? principles and procedures for the systematic

pursuit of knowledge involving: the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ scientific%20method The Scientific Method Keywords? principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving: the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation

and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ scientific%20method By ArchonMagnus - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42164616 Quantitative research In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantitative_research Qualitative research Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory

research used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to http://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/what-is-the-difference-betweendevelop ideas or hypotheses for potential qualitative-research-and-quantitative-research/ quantitative research. Qualitative vs. quantitative research Qualitative research emphasizes the importance of looking at variables in the natural setting in which they are found. Interaction between variables is important. Detailed data is gathered through open ended questions that provide direct quotations. The interviewer is an integral part of the investigation

(Jacob, 1988). This differs from quantitative research which attempts to gather data by objective methods to provide information about relations, comparisons, and predictions and attempts to remove the http://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage21.htm Characteristics of qualitative Understanding - Seeks to understand peoples Purpose research interpretations. Dynamic - Reality changes with changes in peoples perceptions.

Insider - Reality is what people perceive it to be. Viewpoint Value bound - Values will have an impact and should Values be understood and taken into account when conducting and reporting research. Holistic - A total or complete picture is sought. Focus Discovery - Theories and hypotheses are evolved from Orientation data as collected. Subjective - Data are perceptions of the people in the Data environment. Instrumentatio Human - The human person is the primary collection instrument.

n Naturalistic - Investigations are conducted under Conditions natural conditions. Valid - The focus is on design and procedures to gain Results "real," "rich," and "deep" data. Reality http://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage21.htm Scientific Objectivity (1) Objectivity as Faithfulness to Facts Objectivity as Absence of Normative Commitments and the Value-Free Ideal Objectivity as Freedom from Personal Biases

Measurement and Quantification Inductive and Statistical Inference Scientific Objectivity (2) Science is objective in that, or to the extent that: its productstheories, laws, experimental results and observationsconstitute accurate representations of the external world. The products of science are not tainted by human desires, goals, capabilities or experience. product objectivity the processes and methods that characterize it neither depend on contingent social and ethical values, nor on the individual bias of a scientist process objectivity.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity The view from nowhere There are two kinds of qualities: ones that vary with the perspective one has or takes, and ones that remain constant through changes of perspective. The latter are the objective properties. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity The view from nowhere Nagels 3-step conception: 1. realize (or postulate) that our perceptions are caused by the actions of things on us, through their effects on our bodies. 2. realize (or postulate) that since the same properties

that cause perceptions in us also have effects on other things and can exist without causing any perceptions at all, their true nature must be detachable from their perspectival appearance and need not resemble it. 3. form a conception of that true nature independently of any perspective. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity Nagel, T., 1986, The View From Nowhere, New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Impact of value(s) on science 1. the choice of a scientific research problem; 2. the gathering of evidence in relation to the problem; 3. the acceptance of a scientific hypothesis or theory as an adequate answer to the problem on the basis

of the evidence; 4. the proliferation and application of scientific research results. (Weber 1917 [1988]). http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity Value types Scientific values: Accuracy, simplicity, Epistemic (or cognitive) values: predictive accuracy, scope, unification, explanatory power, coherence with other accepted theories, Contextual (non-cognitive) values: moral, personal, social, political and cultural values such as pleasure, justice and equality,

conservation of the natural environment, diversity, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity Three theses Value-Free Ideal (VFI): Scientists should strive to minimize the influence of contextual values on scientific reasoning, e.g., in gathering evidence and assessing/accepting scientific theories. scientific objectivity is characterized by absence of contextual values and by exclusive commitment to epistemic values in scientific reasoning. Value-Neutrality Thesis (VNT): Scientists canat least in principlegather evidence and

assess/accept theories without making contextual value judgments. Value-Laden Thesis (VLT): Scientists cannot gather evidence and assess/accept theories without making contextual value judgments. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity Evidence-based medicine Evidence-based medicine de-emphasizes intuition, unsystematic clinical experience, and pathophysiological rationale as sufficient grounds for clinical decision making and stresses the examination of evidence from clinical research. Evidence = analyses of the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which attempt to eliminate

selection bias. Judgment still required to assess the extent to which a patient is similar to the study subjects http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity Part 2. Application Mental disease Does mental illness exist? Their answer: The

Antipsychiatry Coalition there are no biological abnormalities responsible for socalled mental illness, mental disease, or mental

disorder, therefore mental illness has no biological existence. Perhaps more importantly, however, mental illness also has no nonbiological existence, except in the sense that the term is used to indicate disapproval of some aspect of a person's mentality. Lawrence Stevens, J.D, 1999

Their argument is based on the (narrow ?) definitions for disease. Most attempts refer to bodily issues: STEDMAN (27th edition): An interruption, cessation, or disorder of body function, system, or organ. Syn: illness, morbus, sickness A morbid entity characterized usually by at least two of these criteria: recognized etiologic agent(s), identifiable group of signs and symptoms, or consistent anatomic alterations.

DORLAND any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a part, organ, or system of the body as manifested by characteristic symptoms and signs; the etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. Latest WHO definition A disease is: an interconnected set of one or more dysfunctions in one or more body systems including: a pattern of signs, symptoms and findings (symptomatology - manifestations), a pattern or patterns of development over time (course

and outcome), a common underlying causal mechanism (etiology). linking to underling genetic factors (genotypes, phenotypes and endophenotypes) and to interacting environmental factors, and possibly: to a pattern or patterns of response to interventions (treatment response). WHO constitution The State Parties to this Constitution declare, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations,

that the following principles are basic to the happiness, harmonious relations and security of all peoples: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. What is a mental disorder ? The social-constructivist position: mental disorder is a value-laden social construct with no counterpart in biomedical reality. The objectivist position:

mental disorders are natural entities that could be understood in biological terms. The hybrid position: Mental disorder is harmful dysfunction. the social definition of "harm" is counterbalanced by a factual component of a malfunctioning internal mechanism causing objective dysfunction. Jablensky A: Does psychiatry need an overarching concept of "mental disorder"? World Psychiatry 2007, 6:157-158.

A terminological and ontological problem (1) WHO: Lexicon of psychiatric and mental health terms. Second edn. Geneva: WHO; 1994. mental disorder: an imprecise term designating any disorder of the mind, acquired or congenital organic mental disorder: a range of mental disorders grouped together on the basis of their having in common a demonstrable etiology in cerebral disease, brain injury, or other insult, leading to cerebral dysfunction. Does WHO rule out the existence of mental disorders which are not due to brain disorder?

The old debate on the body-mind problem Dualistic views in Philosophy of Mind: asserts the separate existence of mind and body comes in various flavours: Ontological dualism Substance dualism Property dualism Predicate dualism Interaction dualism

Monistic views in Philosophy of Mind: Behaviourism Identity theory Functionalism Non-reductive physicalism and its impact on Psychiatry Mental health professionals continue to employ a mind-brain dichotomy when reasoning about clinical cases.

The more a behavioral problem is seen as originating in psychological processes, the more a patient tends to be viewed as responsible and blameworthy for his or her symptoms; conversely, the more behaviors are attributed to neurobiological causes, the less likely patients are to be viewed as responsible Miresco MJ, Kirmayer LJ. and blameworthy. The Persistence of Mind-Brain Dualism in Psychiatric Reasoning About Clinical Scenarios. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163:913918 But: Conducted in one institution Based on a questionnaire with voluntary submission Thus risk for major bias

A terminological and ontological problem (2) Szasz: mental illness is a myth whose function it is to disguise and thus render more palatable the bitter pill of moral conflicts in human relations Szasz TS: The Myth of Mental Illness. American Psychologist 1960, 15:113-118. The Myth of Mental Illness I maintain that the mind is not the brain, that mental functions are not reducible to brain functions, and that mental diseases are not brain diseases,

indeed, that mental diseases are not diseases at all. When I assert the latter, I do not imply that distressing personal experiences and deviant behaviors do not exist. Anxiety, depression, and conflict do exist--in fact, are intrinsic to the human condition--but they are not diseases in theS.pathological Thomas Szasz (MD), Mentalsense. Disorders Are Not Diseases. USA Today (Magazine) January 2000 Our interpretation of Szasz (1) the group of persons known to manifest various peculiarities or disorders of thinking

and behavior and about which it is therefore said that they have a mental illness, consists of two subgroups: (1) those for which there is an underlying brain disorder perhaps not yet discoverable by what the state of the art is able to offer; and (2) those who exhibit in their behavior a deviance from certain psychosocial, ethical, or legal norms as judged by themselves, by clinicians, or by others. Our interpretation of Szasz (2)

those for which there is an underlying brain disorder perhaps not yet discoverable by what the state of the art is able to offer would be better described as having a brain disorder, those who exhibit in their behavior a deviance from certain psychosocial, ethical, or legal norms as judged by themselves, by clinicians, or by others

while they might indeed have problems of living, and thus be suffering, are not suffering because of some disorder of a special, mental kind. Our interpretation of Szasz (3) Szasz hereby rejects as fallacious the view which regards social intercourse as something inherently harmonious, its disturbance being due solely to the presence of mental illness in many people. A terminological and ontological problem (3) Adoption of a generic, presumably universal, definition of "mental disorder" would be premature. It may cause more harm than good to psychiatry. Jablensky A: Does psychiatry need an

overarching concept of "mental disorder"? World Psychiatry 2007, 6:157-158. Jablenskys arguments (1) A terminological argument Neither disease nor health has ever been strictly and unambiguously defined in terms of finite sets of observable referential phenomena. Arguments of utility: the medical person is least concerned with what healthy and sick mean in general ... we do not

need the concept of illness in general at all Jaspers K. General psychopathology. Birmingham: Birmingham University Press; 1963. doctors do not concern themselves with maximizing the evolutionary advantages of the human race as a whole, but with aiding individuals Toon PD. Defining "disease" - classification must be distinguished from Jablenskys arguments (2) Ontological argument: we now know that no such general and uniform concept exists.

Jaspers K. General psychopathology ,Birmingham: Birmingham University Press; 1963.. Epistemological argument: the emergence of molecular genetic classifications of large groups of diseases, and the concomitant availability of genetic diagnostic tests, raise the possibility that the entire taxonomy of human disease may eventually be revised. Missing the nail A definition of mental disorder should be such

(a) that it can be used as a criterion for assessing potential candidates for inclusion in the classification, and deletions from it and (b) that there should be at least no ambiguity about the reason that individual candidate diagnoses are included or excluded. Kupfer D, First M, Regier D (Eds.): A Research Agenda for DSM-V, American Psychiatric Association; 2002. This doesnt address at all what candidate mental disorders have in common, i.e. what differentiates them from other, non-mental disorders.

ICD-10 Mental disease guidelines Two distinct ones: The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993. Yet, an individual entity, such as a mental disorder in a specific patient, does not change when looked at from distinct perspectives. The categorical dimensional debate on the classification of mental

Rough distinction: disorders Categorical: mental disorders can be classified as single, discrete and mutually exclusive types, of which a particular patient does or does not exhibit an instance. Dimensional: any particular mental disorder in a patient is an instance of just one single type and differences between cases are a matter of scale. Rough, because

the literature is huge and vague The categorical view Recognizes various mental disorder types Accepts that disorders are manifested through signs and symptoms, either marker or constitutional Provides diagnostic criteria to guide the clinician in making a diagnosis. Evolution of the DSM (1) Psychodynamic period: I and II, 1952-1980

no sharp distinction between normal and abnormal. psychosis / neurosis scale all disorders viewed as reactions (leading to behavior) to environmental events, everyone is more or less abnormal, inclusion in the manual presumes abnormality. DSM-II contained homosexuality as mental disorder which was removed in 1973 by vote. Evolution of the DSM (2) Adoption of biomedical model: III, IV 1980 Clear distinction between normal/abnormal Introduction of diagnostic criteria Latest version is from 2000 DSM-V: foreseen for 2011

DSM under fire (1) severely ill inpatients often meet criteria for more than one DSM-IV personality disorder suggests a high rate of co-morbidity, however in absence of any medical or etiologic reason for such a situation many outpatients do not meet the criteria for any of the specific categories identified in DSM-IV;

patients with the same categorical diagnosis often vary substantially with respect to which diagnostic criteria were used to make the diagnosis, so that two patients with the same diagnosis can manifest very different signs and symptoms; DSM under fire (2) frequent revision of the diagnostic thresholds separating what is normal from what is disordered it is as if given disorders would appear and disappear in course of time; a number of the diagnostic categories mentioned in DSM-IV lack any developing scientific base for an understanding of the corresponding disorder types

The Dimensional Approach (1) Mental processes and behavior follow traits/phenomena which are to be seen as continuous variables along continua on which all members of the population can be located. These continua extend to both normal and pathological phenotypes. These traits are on a par with properties such as temperature, weight, Homo sapiens is not further subdivided in subspecies according to weight, temperature, The Dimensional Approach (2) Diagnostic categories defined by their syndromes should be regarded as valid only if they have been shown to be discrete

entities with natural boundaries that separate them from other disorders. Kendell R, Jablensky A. Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:412. there is no empirical evidence for natural boundaries between major syndromes the categorical approach is fundamentally flawed Cloninger CR: A new conceptual paradigm from genetics and psychobiology for the science of mental health. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 33:174186, 1999. Is there empirical evidence for this boundary ? And if not, do these mountains exist ?

Then also these guys would be from the same species W.N. Kellogg, L.A. Kellogg. The Ape and The Child; A Comparative Study of the Environmental Influence Upon Early Behavior. Hafner Publishing Company, New York and London, 1967. Attempts to resolve the problem (1) Mental disorders as practical kinds stable patterns that can be identified with varying levels of reliability and validity and which are justified by their usefulness for specific purposes such as giving an appropriate treatment Zachar, P. 2000b. Psychiatric disorders are not natural kinds.

Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 7:16794. Basis: epistemic value commitments values involved in making and advancing epistemologically-relevant claims, such as scientific ones: Coherence Consistency Comprehensiveness Fecundity Simplicity Instrumental efficacy Originality

Relevance Precision JZ. Sadler. Epistemic Value Commitments in the Debate over Categorical vs. Dimensional Personality Diagnosis. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 3.3 (1996) 203-222 Most recent evolution RDoC Matrix for the Cognitive domain

Cognitive Systems > Auditory Perception Genes: BDNF Molecules: Acetylcholine, GABA, Glutamate, NMDA, Serotonin Cells: Cochlear hair cells, Cortical and limbic inhibitory interneurons, Ribbon synapses Circuits:

Nodes in Circuits: A1, Anterior insula, Brainstem, Cochlea, Inferior colliculus, MGN, STG Circuits: Corticofugal Dorsal/ventral streams Physiology: Adaptation/ habituation, Auditory steady-state response (ASSR), fMRI, Intracortical EEG, Metabolic changes, Mismatch negativity (MMN), N1, Neural oscillations, P3a, P50, startle and PPI Behavior: Perceptual identification, Perceptual learning, Perceptual priming, Spatial localization, Stimulus detection Self-Report: Auditory hallucinations, Hyperacusis Paradigms: Action-Perception loops, Auditory masking, auditory scene perception (e.g., streaming), Categorization, Cross-modal interactions,

Cognitive Systems > Auditory Perception Genes: BDNF Molecules: Acetylcholine, GABA, Glutamate, NMDA, Serotonin Cells: Cochlear hair cells, Cortical and limbic inhibitory interneurons, Ribbon synapses Circuits:

Nodes in Circuits: A1, Anterior insula, Brainstem, Cochlea, Inferior colliculus, MGN, STG Circuits: Corticofugal Dorsal/ventral streams Physiology: Adaptation/ habituation, Auditory steady-state response (ASSR), fMRI, Intracortical EEG, Metabolic changes, Mismatch negativity (MMN), N1, Neural oscillations, P3a, P50, startle and PPI Behavior: Perceptual identification, Perceptual learning, Perceptual priming, Spatial localization, Stimulus detection Self-Report: Auditory hallucinations, Hyperacusis Paradigms: Action-Perception loops, Auditory masking, auditory scene perception (e.g., streaming), Categorization, Cross-modal interactions,

Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Acetylcholine Cross-modal interactions Next week C3. Qualitative research methods: theory and data collection methods Pre-class reading: Kirsti Malterud. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice: Why and how? Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2016; 44: 120129

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1403494815621181 Class structure: a) b) c) lecture on common qualitative data collection methods (Document Review, Observation, Interview (face-to-face), Focus Group Discussion, Ethnography,), discussion of the C2-application test in light of a) discussion of the pre-reading paper on the basis of what was taught in the lecture.

Post-class assignment: open book test with multiple choice questions and open-ended motivation based on literature. Deadline: Feb 22, noon. Part 3. Application test Extraterrestrial research In-class application test Students will be presented with three evolving scenarios about behaviors in some populations. Each scenario will add some more observations about the populations.

Students will be asked to suggest for each scenario hypotheses about the observed behaviors and specify a research method and analysis procedure for each hypothesis. For the 2nd and 3rd scenario, they will also need to indicate which hypotheses from the previous scenario(s), if any at all, can be ruled out on the basis of the new observations. Scoring 10%: Contribution of - and balance between - imagination and personal human zoo experiences in raising sufficiently distinct questions, hypotheses, proposed observables and testable predictions; 10%: The degree to which the predictions that would confirm the

hypotheses are documented to be testable; 20%: The quality of the argument(s) used to assert the testability of the predictions; 20%: The extend to which observables proposed for testing predictions are described in terms of objective and interpretative features; 20%: The argumentation used to assess the plausibility of hypotheses forwarded in previous scenarios in light of new observations in later scenarios. 20%: The quality of the conclusion in terms of the most plausible hypothesis for the behavior of humanoids of the two distinct By ArchonMagnus - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42164616 A planet with tribal humanoids is

discovered O1: we are told about a tribe T1 on one side of a planet. We are told that when a humanoid of that tribe slaps another one in the face, (1) the other one often slaps back, (2) rarely the 2nd one spits the slapper in the face, and (3) nobody spits first. We want to find out why, jump in our spacecraft and start to observe the tribe. We are able to see all they do outside, but have no means to interact with them. A. B. C. D. Interesting questions: Hypotheses:

Testable predictions: What data to gather? By ArchonMagnus - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42164616 A planet with tribal humanoids is discovered O2: we observe on the other side of the planet exactly opposite behavior in a different tribe (T2) that never was in contact with T1. We have the same observational means, and still cant interact. A. B. C.

D. Interesting questions: Hypotheses: Testable predictions: What data to gather? By ArchonMagnus - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42164616 A planet with tribal humanoids is O3: we observe a large group of members of T1 going on exploration discovered and make contact with members of T2. Initially when a T1 slaps a T2, the T2 slaps back and when a T2 spits a T1, the T1 spits back. After a

while, we observe that most of the time when T1-T2 interactions happen, spitting is followed by slapping from the other party and the other way round. In such T1-T2 interactions, when it starts with spitting, it is most often, but not always, initiated by a T1, and with slapping a T2. T1-T1 and T2-T2 interactions stay as in O1 and O2. A. B. C. D. Interesting questions: Hypotheses: Testable predictions: What data to gather?

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