Pollutants LQ: How are pollutants formed? Learning outcomes. MUST: Explain combustion, in terms of loss/gain of oxygen (C)
SHOULD: Describe the origin of different pollutants (B) COULD: Use a table of information to write a paragraph explaining how the main pollutant gases are formed (A) Explain why nitrogen becomes a pollutant gas (it is normally unreactive) (A*) Elements, atoms, molecules, compounds Elements pure chemicals, e.g. Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Hydrogen Consist of tiny particles called atoms In liquids and gases, if two or more atoms are
joined together they are called molecules Compounds when two or more different atoms chemically join together Which of the following are elements, mixtures, compounds? And which are/contain molecules? What is the state of matter at room temperature for each chemical? Air Nitrogen Carbon Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide Sulphur Sulphur dioxide Petrol MUST: Explain combustion, in terms of loss/gain of oxygen (C) Combustion Oxidation addition of oxygen to a chemical Reduction removal of oxygen from a chemical
Which of the above two types of reaction is combustion? Explain why Candle Which candle went out first How has the composition of our air now changed? How does this impact on our global atmosphere? What effect does diffusion cause to happen, in terms of pollution?
SHOULD: Describe the origin of different pollutants (B) fuels Coal-contains carbon Petrol/oil/gas contain hydrocarbons
Coal/gas also contains impurities of sulphur Nitrogen also reacts with??? In??? Burn in a chemical reaction called combustion Need oxygen therefore fuels burn much stronger in pure oxygen than in air (obtain pure O2 for using to weld things oxyacetylene torch) Complete combustion occurs when there is a plentiful supply of oxygen present-water and carbon dioxide are products Incomplete combustion occurs when there is a limited supply of oxygen present-either carbon or carbon monoxide are products. Both these reactions will also produce water Particulates? What are they?
Combustion reactions Fuel + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Fuel + oxygen carbon monoxide + water Fuel + oxygen carbon + water Nitrogen + oxygen nitrogen oxide
Sulphur + oxygen sulphur dioxide Reactants products Atoms rearrange in combustion reactions but number of atoms are conserved (conserving mass) Can you state where each pollutant comes from? COULD: Use a table of information to write a paragraph explaining how the main pollutant gases are formed (A) Explain why nitrogen becomes a pollutant gas (it is normally unreactive) (A*)
Particulates Pollutants Formed from combustion reactions Particulates - solid pieces of unburnt fuel. Form soot on surfaces Carbon - chemical that coal is made of. In a plentiful supply of oxygen it burns and reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide If there is a limited amount of oxygen then carbon monoxide is formed Sulphur found as an impurity in coal and natural gas. Sulphur dioxide formed when coal is burnt Nitrogen monoxide formed from the reaction with oxygen in
the air when petrol burns Further reaction with oxygen forms nitrogen dioxide Where do they go? Sulphur dioxide into the air. React with rainwater to form acid rain Nitrogen dioxide into the air. React with rainwater to form acid rain Particulates into the air. Forms soot on buildings and is suspended in the air Carbon dioxide into the air. Contributes to global warming
Pollution Humans pollute the Earth in a number of ways: Pollutant Harmful to... Why? Carbon dioxide Environment
A greenhouse gas that causes global warming Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Environment + Causes acid rain and makes humans asthma/breathing problems worse Causes acid rain/asthma Environment
Particulates (e.g. Smoke) Environment + humans Carbon monoxide Humans 03/01/2020 Makes buildings dirty and makes asthma worse Displaces oxygen in red blood cells that can result in death
1. Name three ways in which carbon dioxide was removed from the earths early atmosphere. 2. In terms of atoms, what elements are found in (a) coal and (b) petrol? 3. What must a fuel react with to produce the products carbon dioxide and water? 4. What must be supplied to a combustion reaction to burn the fuel faster? 5. What visual evidence tells you that incomplete combustion has occurred? 6. In chemical reactions mass is conserved what does this mean? 7. From which combustion reaction is (a) carbon dioxide (b)
carbon monoxide (c) nitrogen monoxide formed Chemical reactions that involve the addition of oxygen to chemicals are called oxidation reactions Loss of oxygen from a chemical is called a reduction reaction- which type of reaction is a combustion reaction? Dangers how are the following pollutants a hazard?
Carbon dioxide global warming Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Particulates Carbon monoxide Removing Pollution There are many ways pollution can be reduced: Use less electricity/central heating
Remove toxic chemicals before or after they are burnt Use alternative energy sources, e.g. wind power 03/01/2020 Technology can help to reduce pollution Flue-gas desulfurisation Catalytic converters Oxford University Press 2011
Reducing Pollution from vehicles A number of suggestions: 1) Buy a new, smaller, more efficient car 2) Use legal limits (e.g. An MOT) to enforce lower emissions 3) Use low sulfur fuels or convert your car to run on biodiesel 4) Make sure your car has a catalytic converter: Carbon monoxide + oxygen
Nitrogen monoxide + carbon monoxide monoxide 5) Use the train or a bus! 03/01/2020 carbon dioxide nitrogen + carbon Use the diagram to explain how a catalytic converter reduces harmful emissions Wet Scrubbing
Wet scrubbing is a term used to describe the removal of sulphur dioxide and other particles using seawater or an alkaline spray: Step 1 the dirty gas is fed in through the top. Step 3 the mixture is fed Step 2 the into a cyclone scrubbing
area where the liquid slurry is (seawater or collected at the alkaline spray) bottom of the is fed in through device. the03/01/2020 side. Use the diagram to explain how wet
scrubbing reduces harmful gases from power stations Use the diagram to explain how static electricity reduces harmful gases from power stations
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