Poetic Rhythm and Rhyme RHYTHM BEAT CADENCE METER Meter Patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables The basic unit of meter is a foot. Most common feet in English poetry: Iamb / Trochee / Anapest / Dactyl / Spondee //
/ Iambic / / / / I asked my mother for fifty cents / / / x / / To see the elephant jump the fence / / / / He jumped so high, he touched the sky / / /
/ / And he did not come back til the Fourth of July Shakespeares SONNET 138 When my love swears that she is made of truth I do believe her though I know she lies, That she might think me some untutord youth Unlearned in the worlds false subtleties. Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, Although she knows my days are past the best, Simply I credit her false speaking tongue: On both sides thus is simple truth suppressd. But wherefore says she not she is unjust? And wherefore say not I that I am old? O, loves best habit is in seeming trust, And age in love loves not to have years told: Therefore, I lie with her and she with me And in our faults by lies we flatterd be. Trochaic / / /
/ / / / Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers x / / / / / / If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers / / / / Wheres the peck of pickled peppers / / / (iambic)iambic) That Peter Piper picked? The Tyger by William Blake Tyger! Tyger! burning bright, In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire in thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire? And what shoulder, and what art? Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand, and what dread feet? What the hammer? What the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? What dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears, And watered heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb, make thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright, In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? Anapestic / /
/ / There was an old man in a tree / /
/ Who was horribly bored by a bee / / When they said, "Does it buzz? /
/ He replied, "Yes, it does! / / / It's a regular brute of a bee!" Edward Lear / Dactylic (poetry) / /
/ / / / This is the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks, dactylic hexameter: Longfellow, Evangeline / / / / Picture your self in a boat on a river with / /
/ / tangerine tree-ees and marmalade skii-ii-es. Dactylic tetrameter time: The Beatles, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds Spondaic / / Rarely an entire line of poetry / /
/ / See Saw, Margery Daw / / / / I scream. You scream. / / / We all scream for ice cream From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. -- E.A. Poe Metrical Lines
One foot monometer Two feet dimeter Three feet trimeter Four feet tetrameter Five feet pentameter (iambic pentameter) Six feet hexameter (dactylic hexameter) Seven feet heptameter Eight feet octameter Stanzas 2 line stanzas: couplets 3 line stanzas: tercets triplets: aaa bbb ccc ddd
terza rima: aba bcb cdc ded 4 line stanzas: quatrains 5 line stanzas: quintets 6 line stanzas: sestets 7 line stanzas: septets 8 line stanzas: octaves Rhyme Scheme Mary had a little jam, she spread it on a waffle. And if she hadn't eaten ten she wouldn't feel so _____. The ends of lines repeat the same sounds.
A B C B The snow came down And covered the town The snow came down last night The snow came down And covered the town And left it snowy _____. A A B A A B Shakespeares SONNET 138 When my love swears that she is made of truth I do believe her though I know she lies, That she might think me some untutord youth Unlearned in the worlds false subtleties.
a b a b Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, Although she knows my days are past the best, Simply I credit her false speaking tongue: On both sides thus is simple truth suppressd. c d c d But wherefore says she not she is unjust? And wherefore say not I that I am old? O, loves best habit is in seeming trust, And age in love loves not to have years told: e f e
f Therefore, I lie with her and she with me And in our faults by lies we flatterd be. g g Kinds of Rhyme Exact: eye/sky/pie; sing/ding/ring Near or Half: sing/dung/rang Eye: tough/through/dough Internal: "Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak December" / /
Masculine: rang/sang / / Feminine: ringing/singing Rhyme Patterns Onomatopoeia words that sound like what they represent Alliteration repetition of sounds Initial: The wild and woolly walrus waits and wonders when well walk by. Internal: baobab; purple potpourri Final: Knox in box. Fox in socks. Knox on fox in socks in box. Dr. Suess Assonance same vowel
sounds Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geese Three free throws. Buzz Hiss Roar Woof Tick-tock Repeated words and Sky was chasing chasing chasing with his feet going every which way and his tail wag-wag-wagging BELLS by Edgar Allen Poe I. Hear the sledges with the bells Silver bells! What a world of merriment their melody foretells! How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,
In the icy air of night! While the stars that oversprinkle All the heavens seem to twinkle With a crystalline delight; Keeping time, time, time, In a sort of Runic rhyme, To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. I felt a Funeral, in my Brain, (340) By Emily Dickinson I felt a Funeral, in my Brain, And Mourners to and fro Kept treading - treading - till it seemed That Sense was breaking through And when they all were seated, A Service, like a Drum Kept beating - beating - till I thought My mind was going numb And then I heard them lift a Box And creak across my Soul With those same Boots of Lead, again, Then Space - began to toll, As all the Heavens were a Bell, And Being, but an Ear,
And I, and Silence, some strange Race, Wrecked, solitary, here And then a Plank in Reason, broke, And I dropped down, and down And hit a World, at every plunge, And Finished knowing - then -
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