Plant Reproduction (Terrestrial) nonvascular > vascular, haploid dominant > diploid dominant, homosporous > heterosporous, motile gametes > nonmotile gametes, Bryophytes seedless > seeds, water > wind and animals; gamete,spore and seed disbursement. Trees Sporophyte? Gametophyte? Sporophyte: Cells are diploid (2n)
Produces spores (n) through meiosis Gametophyte: Cells are haploid (n) Produces gametes (n) that fuse to form a zygote (2n) Haploid Dominant > Diploid Dominant Fig. 30.1 Homospory vs. Heterospory The principal difference between homospory and heterospory is the separation of sexes at different points in the life cycle,
female gametes in ovules, male gametes in pollen grains, heterospory promotes outcrossing among plants, since microspores may drift farther from the sporophyte than megaspores. Simple, unbranched sporophyte dependent on gametophyte. Mosses
Developing sporophyte Zygote (2n) Mature gametophyte (n) Developing gametophyte Mature gametophyte (n) Spore (n) See Fig 29.16 Branched sporophyte not
dependent on gametophyte at maturity. Ferns vascular diploid dominant homosporous
motile gametes seedless + water dependent reduced, naked... Fig. 29.23 Sporophyte vs. Gametophyte self defense, anti-desiccant, large, branched sporophyte capable of producing more spores,
diploid organism has a greater capacity for complex growth, haploid w/ mutant gene two copies of every gene, mutation do not necessarily hinder development (i.e. one good copy and one mutant copy in a diploid). diploid w/ mutant gene
megasporangia Heterosporous primitive microsporangia In these plants, a sporophyte produces two types of sporangia, microsporangia contain microspore mother cells, each of which undergoes meiosis, forming microspores, megasporangia contain megaspore mother cells, each of which undergoes meiosis, forming megaspores.
nonmotile gametes naked seeds not water dependent Gymnosperm Seeds naked embryos Ovule (immature): megasporangium surrounded by integument. When mature, an ovule becomes a seed. Pollen gymnosperms Outer layer of pollen is made impermeable by a cyclic alcohol sporopollenin
, winged for wind dispersal, lots of pollen is produced, and randomly reaches the micropyle of receptive ovules. Lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Angiosperms vascular
diploid dominant heterosporous nonmotile gametes seeds w/ 3n endosperm not water dependent Monocots/Dicots Monocot: Petals are in multiples of three Leaf veins run parallel Vascular bundles in the stem are dispersed
Dicot: Petals are in multiples of four or five Leaf veins are branched Vascular bundles in the stem are arranged in a ring Corn is a fruit! A fruit is a mature ovary that develops after the egg has been fertilized. Each kernel is a simple fruit Types of fruit: Simple = single flower, single ovary Aggregate = single flower, multiple ovaries Multiple = multiple flowers, ovaries fuse together
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