Plant Parts and Functions - PC\|MAC

Plant Parts and Functions - PC\|MAC

Plant Types/ Parts and Functions Plants: Grouped by characteristics Vascular Three main parts: roots, stems and leaves Roots can be different sizes: Fibrous and tap roots Storage roots; beets, carrots, sweet potatoes and turnips Roots have different functions: anchoring the plant, taking in

water and minerals, and store food. Nonvascular Simple; most grow in moist places No vascular tissues. Two Types of Plants Angiosperms are fruit or flower bearing.

Gymnosperms are naked seeds and cone bearing. Angiosperms Two Groups: Monocots and Dicots

Parts of The Plant Roots Leaves Stem Flower Seed Image found at: www.webinstituteforteachers.org

Roots 2 Types of Root Systems Taproot Fibrous System Image found at: http://www.puc.edu Roots

Taproot System Primary roots grow down from the stem with some secondary roots forming Image found at: http://www.arboretum.fullerton.edu Roots Fibrous Root

System Small lateral roots that spread out just below the soil surface Image found at: www.wildmanstevebrill.com Can you identify these root types?

Root Functions Roots have 4 primary functions Absorption of water and nutrients performed by root hairs Transportation of water and nutrients to stem Anchor plant to maintain stability

Store food and water Parts of the Root Epidermis Outermost layer of cells, like the skin of the root Cortex Tissue inside epidermis that stores starch and other substances for the growth of

the root Parts of the Root Root Cap Provides protection for the root tip Root Hairs Site of absorption

Image found at: www.cactus-art.biz Vascular Tissue Within cortex, contains cells that transport water, nutrients, and minerals to all parts of the plant Image found at: www.bio.psu.edu

Important Functions of Leaves Photosynthesis Process that plants use to produce their food 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Transpiration Loss of water and exchange of carbon

dioxide Leaf Parts Blade Main body of leaf Petiole Attaches blade to stem

Midrib Large central vein Image found at: www.yourdictionary.com Leaf Parts Apex Tip of leaf Base

Attaches to petiole if petiole is absent, attaches directly to stem Margin Edge of leaf Epidermis Skin of leaf - responsible for gas exchange Stomata

Outside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange Mesophyll Middle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs Functions of the Stem Transport water and nutrients

from roots to leaves Supports leaves, fruit, and flowers Food storage Image found at: www.karencarr.com Parts of the Stem

Node Areas where side branches and leaves develop Internode Area between nodes Xylem Carries nutrients up

Phloem Carries nutrients down Pith Stores food Image found at: www.ext.colostate.edu Flower Function

Sexual Reproduction!!!! Flowers are pollinated by: Wind Insects Birds Flower Parts Pistil

Female part of plant Containing: Stigma Style Ovary Image found at: www.howe.k12.ok.us Flower Parts Stamen

Male reproductive part Contains Anther Filament Image found at: www.botanyworld.com Flower Parts

Petals Highly colored part of the flower, may contain perfume and/or nectar glands Sepals Small green structures on the

base of a flower that protect the flower bud Image found at: http://biology.clc.uc.edu Parts of the Seed Embryo Growing part of seed containing: Plumule Shoot

Hypocotyl Stem Radical Root Endosperm Tissue that provides nutrition for the developing seed Cotyledon Food Storage Seed Coat Protective outer covering of the seed

Parts of the Seed Image found at: www.puc.edu Pollination Flowering plants use the wind, insects, bats, birds and mammals to

transfer pollen from the male (stamen) part of the flower to the female (stigma) part of the flower. Pollination A flower is pollinated when a

pollen grain lands on its stigma. Each carpel grows into a fruit which contains the seeds. Fertilisation Pollen grains germinate on the

stigma, growing down the style to reach an ovule. Fertilised ovules develop into seeds. The carpel enlarges to form the flesh of the fruit and to protect the ovary.

Wind pollination Some flowers, such as grasses, do not have brightly coloured petals and nectar to attract insects. They do have stamens and carpels. These flowers are pollinated by the

wind. Seed dispersal Seeds are dispersed in many different ways: Wind Explosion Water Animals

Birds Scatter How birds and animals help seed dispersal Some seeds are hidden in the ground as a winter store. Some fruits have

hooks on them and cling to fur or clothes. How birds and animals help seed dispersal Birds and animals eat the fruits and excrete the seeds away from the

parent plant. Physical Adaptations Allowing Plants to Survive on Land Cuticle waxy covering of leaf for water loss protection Spores and Seeds reproductive cell protection Tissue for absorbing and transporting materials

Spines and needles making ingestion difficult. Storing water in stem as a cactus does. Cuticle Waxy coating preventing water loss Seeds Embryo surrounded by a protective coating

Moss (Spores) Haploid reproductive cell surrounded by a hard outer wall Foxglove plant produces a chemical affecting the heart Poison Ivy

Chemical Adaptations Allowing Plants to Survive Chemicals that are toxic and can kill organisms eating them Foul odor Bitter taste Toxicity

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