Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Fluency The Fear Factor

Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Fluency The Fear Factor

Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Fluency The Fear Factor Joann Doyle, MS CCC-SLP SLP Literacy Academies National Reading Panel National Reading Panel and other research has clearly documented the importance of incorporating phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency in reading instruction.

There is clearly a connection between these skills and accurate and fluent word recognition. Whos at risk It is well established that children with a history of spoken language delays and difficulties are at risk for subsequent literacy problems, understanding the nature of this risk still presents an important challenge both to reading specialists and speech-language professionals. (Snowling, 2004)

Language & Literacy Recent studies have shown it is possible to make good predications of reading outcomes based largely on early language factors. (Catts, Fey, Zhang, & Tomblin 2001) Catts et al (2001) 5 variables that could provide an

88% probability of children having reading problems: Sentence Imitation Letter Identification Phonological Awareness Rapid Naming Mothers Education Language & Literacy

Using spoken language disorders as the criterion approximately 73% of the students who later experienced reading delays could have been identified by age 3 or 4 years (Fey 1995) When speech/language services are targeted for spoken language only they do not seem to impact reading and literacy directly. Fey suggests that it is necessary to supplement traditional speech and

language intervention with a focus on print and phonological awareness. (1995) Phonological Processing Phonological Processing Skills Alphabetic languages represent language at the phoneme level (i.e. letters typically correspond to phonemes in words).

Almost all poor readers have a problem with phonological processing. Phonological Processing Skills Phonological Memory Phonological Access Phonological Sensitivity Phonological Memory The ability to hold sound based

information in immediate memory Better PM may increase the likelihood that the phonemes associated with the letters of a word can be maintained in memory while decoding, freeing more cognitive resources for decoding and comprehension. Phonological Access (Retrieval) The retrieval of sound-based codes

from memory. Better phonological access may increase the ease of retrieval of phonological codes associated with letters, word segments, and whole words from memory, making it more likely that they can be used in decoding. Phonological Sensitivity (phonological awareness) The ability apprehend and/or

manipulate smaller and smaller units of sound Better phonological sensitivity facilitates the connection between letters and the sounds they represent in words. Phonological Awareness The term began appearing in the research literature in the late 1970s and

early 1980s. Refers to an individuals awareness of the sound structure of a spoken word. Relates directly to a childs ability to decode words and to spell. Explicit awareness of the phonological structure of a word helps children draw connections between the spoken form of a word and its written form. Coarticulation Usefulness of PA Assessment

A measure of phonological awareness in kindergarten predicted 2nd grade word reading beyond a measure of letter identification. The best predictor at 2nd grade of word reading ability is word reading and a measure of phonetic decoding added unique information. There is a reciprocal relationship between PA and reading and spelling. (Hogan, Catts, Little: 2005)

PA & Children with Speech Impairment Is closely related to the severity of the phonological disorder and level of phonological awareness. (Catts & Kamhi: 1999) Receptive-based assessments of underlying phonological representations provide clinically relevant information for children with speech impairment. (Sutherland & Gillon: 2005)

Data provides evidence to support integrating activities to develop PA and letter knowledge into therapy for 3 & 4 year old children with moderate of severe speech impairment. (Gillon: 2005) Possible Roles of the SLP - PA Provide phonological processing assessment as part of the test battery (CELF-4: Phonological Awareness, Number Repetition, Recalling Sentences, Word

Associations, Familiar Sequences, & Rapid Automatic Naming ITPA-3 : Word Discrimination, Phonemic Analysis, Sight Decoding, Sound Decoding, Sight Spelling, Sound Spelling TOLD-P3 : Sound Deletion, Rhyming Sequences Test of Auditory Processing Skills (TAPS) Case Study

Female: kindergarten repeater, CA 6-0 Enrolled in language therapy only disability TOLD-P3: SLQ 70/Listening 88 /Speaking Q 79 DIBELS: Initial Sound Fluency MR (20-40%), Letter Name Fluency LR (at or above 40%) Supplemental Subtests TOLD Word Discrimination subtest SS 5/5% Phonemic Analysis subtest SS 2/1% Case Study

Female: 1st grade, CA 7-2 Enrolled in language therapy, only disability PLS-4 Total Quotient 79/Auditory Comprehension Q 85 /Expressive Communication 77 DIBELS: Letter Naming Fluency LR, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency MR, Nonsense Word Fluency MR, Oral Reading Fluency MR CELF-4: Sentence Imitation-SS 4, Phonological

Awareness-Below Criterion, Number Repetitionforward SS 5, reversed SS 2, total SS 3, RANCriterion Non-normal (CTOPP PA SS 89, PM SS 72, RN SS 67) Case Study Male: 2nd grade repeater, CA 9-4 Enrolled in language therapy, only disability TOLD:P3: Spoken Language Q SS 76/ Listening Q SS 73/Speaking Q SS 79 DIBELS: 2004-2005 (end of yr) Nonsense Word Fluency 32 MR, Oral Reading Fluency 48 HR

2005-2006 Nonsense Word Fluency 48 MR, Oral Reading Fluency 38 MR ITPA-3: Sound Deletion-SS 9/37%, Rhyming Sequences-SS 7/16%, Sight Decoding-SS 8/25%, Sound Decoding-SS 8/25%, Sight Spelling-SS 7/16%, Sound Spelling-SS 10/50% Levels of Phonological Awareness (Gillon 2004) Syllable Awareness Awareness that words can be broken up into

syllables, each syllable in a word contains a vowel Onset-Rime Awareness Is shown at the intra-syllabic level The onset of a word is the consonant or consonants that precede the vowel, and the rime is everything after the vowel (e.g. c-at or bl-ack) Phonemic Awareness Awareness at the phoneme level

Syllable Tasks Syllable Segmentation: How many syllables or words parts in fantastic? Syllable Deletion: Say rabbit, now say it again but dont say ra. Onset-Rime Tasks

Spoken rhyme recognition: Do these words rhyme: cat-bat? Rhyme oddity task: Which word does not belong: cat, hat, fish? Spoken rhyme production: Tell me a word that rhymes or sounds like fish. Onset-rime blending: What word is this: f ish? Phonemic Awareness

Alliteration: Which word has a different first sound: bat, hat, ball, boy? Phoneme matching: Which word begins with the same sound as bat: hat, fish, bed? Phoneme isolation: What is the first sound in the word pig? Phoneme blending: What word do these sounds make: /k/ /a/ /t/?

Phonemic Awareness Tasks Phoneme deletion: Say stick, now say it again but dont say /s/. Phoneme segmentation: Tell me the sounds in the word bus. Phoneme reversal: Say back now say it backwards Levels Just Read,

Florida w A l a ic g o l o n o h P s

s e n e r a Phoneme Segmenting & Blending Onset-Rime Blending & Segmenting Syllable Blending & Segmenting Sentence

Segmentation Rhyme & Alliteration The goal of PA intervention is to enhance reading & writing performance. Possible Roles

Assist with DIBELS with students that have severe speech problems Train and provide model for how sounds are made Provide PA for students on caseload, in a push-in model could include other students in the classroom that are having problems Consonant Phoneme Chart p. 27 Vowel Chart (Moats, 2004)

Intervention in PA Select a story that you enjoy reading with your students. You can select words for articulation intervention as well as words for PA. They may be slightly different. You can use the same book for selecting vocabulary words to teach.

Where the Wild Things Are Artic Word Bank Sh gnashed ocean ferocious showed shore S/Z

Max scales sailed waves ceiling forest scary R

rumpus forest dragon roar terrible rolled silver L

wild -fearless wolf -flap scales terrible love tumble Phonemic Awareness

Students need solid phonemic awareness training for phonics instruction to be effective. Approximately 20-40% of children have difficulty with PA. Focusing on one or two skills is more effective than multiple skills e.g. segmenting and blending Phonological Awareness

Phonological awareness involves rhyme, syllable awareness and phonemic awareness. Alvin alligator always asks Alice if she likes ants. Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is not related to print, a child can have some levels of

awareness before they learn the alphabet. Phonemic awareness activities are oral language activities, however once students can readily identify the letters of the alphabet activities should include letters. PA activities themselves will not insure success in learning to decode. Factors that effect difficulty of PA activities Two factors that contribute to difficulty are the memory requirements of the task

and the characteristics of phonological units. Memory Requirements of the Task Difficulties in short term memory will impact the ability of the student to recall sounds and words. A task such as tell me the sounds in

cat /c/ /a/ /t/ requires less memory than asking them to reverse sounds in words. (e.g. Say pat now say it backwards: tap) Using pictures with younger children decreases the memory requirement. Characteristics of phonological units to be considered Position in word initial and final easier than medial.

Number of phonemes in a word cat is easier than sand. Size compound words are larger than phonemes. Phonological properties continuants, such as /m/, are easier than stop sounds, such as /t/. Phonological Awareness Dimension rhyme is easier than segmentation. Phonological Awareness & Phonics

Model, model, model then have the student do the activity. Dont hesitate to draw attention to how the sound feels as in articulation activities. Most poor readers have weak phonological sensitivity, even students in intermediate levels as well as middle and high school students. Phonological Awareness & Phonics

Make phonological awareness instruction explicit. Use concrete objects to assist with mental manipulation of sounds use a marker while saying the phoneme and with students who know their letters use letters in manipulation tasks. Show me the sounds in cat Show me the letters you hear in cat c a t Use Elkonin or Sound Boxes

Sound Boxes church Creating a PA activity from selected Literature Books Select a favorite book that you like to read to your students. Use the following template to create

your own PA activities. Be sure to pick out the most interesting vocabulary. Keep in mind the PA level of your students so that the activities are appropriate. Where the Wild Things Are Where the Wild Things Are

Sample vocabulary for PA: wild mischief wolf forest ceiling vines ocean private sailed someone rumpus

into Phonological Awareness Developmental Continuum Rhyming Syllable: blending & segmentation Onset-rime: blending & segmentation Phoneme: blending & segmentation Phoneme: deleting & manipulation Rhyme Level

Do _______ and ______ rhyme? (recognition) wild/mild boat/bet Tell me a word that rhymes (sounds like) _______. (production) boat wall Syllable Level

What word is this _____? rum-pus some-one How many syllables (word parts) in _____? supper ceiling Say _______ now say it again, but dont say _____. someone/some Onset-rime Level What word is this? w-ild

Tell me the sound(s) at the beginning of this word _______. cl-aws Phoneme Blending What word is this? ______ /v/ // /n/ /z/

/w/ // /l/ /d/ /r/ /u/ /m/ /p/ /u/ /s/ Phoneme Isolation Level Whats the first sound in the word____? Max Whats the last sound in the word____? world

Whats the middle sound in_____? week Phoneme Segmentation Tell me the sounds in ______? terrible things hung

king Phoneme Deletion Level Say ________, now say it again but, dont say / /. roar/r wild/d blink/b grew/r Phoneme Manipulation/Substitution Level

Say ______, now change / / to / /. teeth, now change /t/ to /r/: wreath rumpus, now change /r/ to /k/: compass Remember

Start with compound words. Beginning sounds are easier to hear. Model each activity for your students. Consonant blends are the most difficult and may not be acquired until third grade. PA for Older Students From Phonemic Awareness to Phonics

Phonics is connecting the sounds to letters/graphemes. Phonics is taught in a sequence. Instruction should be explicit. Teach letter-sound correspondences in isolation. From Phonics Teach phonemes are represented

by graphemes. (graphemes are letters or letter groups that represent phonemes) Move from phonemes to letters/graphemes or there will be very little impact on reading and spelling. Graphemes Letters or letter groups that represent phonemes: f- i- n- i- sh /f/ /i/ /n/ /i/ /sh/

h- igh- l- igh- t /h/ // /l/ // /t/ Role of the SLP in Phonics Help teachers understand to: Separate auditorily and visually similar letters e.g. /i/ and /e/ or /b/ and /d/. Introduce some continuous sounds early /m/ as opposed to /b/. Introduce letters that can be used to build many words: a as in /a/ m, t, c, t. Introduce letters that have single sounds

should be taught first: b as opposed to c Role of SLP That many language impaired students dont understand or use inflected morphemes. Articulation of sounds has an impact on how children spell: Steps in Teaching & Learning Printed Word Recognition in English (Moats, 2000: Speech to Print) Greekderived morphemes Derivational Morphology: Anglo Saxon & Latin Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes

Inflectional Morphology Common Syllables, Syllabication Fluent Recognition of Word Families 300-500 Sight Words Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences Phonological Awareness K 1

2 3 4 5 6 7+ Use Elkonin or Sound Boxes sh

i p c a t Bridging to Phonics

How many sounds? How many letters? 4 4 wild __ 6 __ letters __ 4 __ sounds things _3__ _ __ 4 Max _7__ _ __ 6 private _5__ _ __

3 night _ 6__ _ __ 4 sailed _ __ _ __ Phoneme Grapheme Mapping (Kathi Grace, 2005) 3rd Grade & beyond A technique to develop awareness of how graphemes map onto print. Map each phoneme into one sound box:

kn i t fe ee th Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping ch sh

o ck r i m kn igh t j u dg e c r ow d LETRS: Moats 2005 p s

* p. 17 Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping s t th oug h t a q u r t

e tch x i t e h LETRS: Moats, 2005 a pp y

* p. 17 Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping Grid Use this grid to support your instruction with students. Script the words you will ask your students to map. Scaffold further, if needed, by telling students exactly how many boxes are needed to represent the sounds in each of your words. Kathi Grace: Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping & LETRS

* p. 17 Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping M th p gn r a i l a u

x ng ay sh m s ed ed p z d t

u s From Phonics to Fluency What is Reading Fluency?

Automaticity is reading with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort Fundamental skills are so automatic that they do not require conscious attention Examples of automaticity : Shifting gears on a car Playing an instrument Playing a sport Components of Reading Fluency

Fluency Prosody Expression, Intonation & Phrasing Automaticity Accuracy & Speed Role of SLP

Include precision teaching or speed drills targeting specific skills ( e.g. CVC words) into therapy Include instruction in phrasing, intonation, and prosody into fluent reading practice (sensitivity to syntax and punctuation). (Kamhi, (2003) The Role of the SLP in Improving Reading Fluency) www.oxtonhouse.com Fluency Activities

Model fluency using prosody Choral read parts of a story Echo read parts of stories Mark phrasing in a big book with removable highlighting tape and model. That very night in Maxs room a forest grew, and grew and grew

Case Study Female: kindergarten repeater, CA 6-0 Enrolled in language therapy only disability TOLD-P3: SLQ 70/Listening 88 /Speaking Q 79 DIBELS: Initial Sound Fluency MR (20-40%),

Letter Name Fluency LR (at or above 40%) Supplemental Subtests TOLD Word Discrimination subtest SS 5/5% Phonemic Analysis subtest SS 2/1% Case Study Female: 1st grade, CA 7-2

Enrolled in language therapy, only disability PLS-4 Total Quotient 79/Auditory Comprehension Q 85 /Expressive Communication 77 DIBELS: Letter Naming Fluency LR, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency MR, Nonsense Word Fluency MR, Oral Reading Fluency MR CELF-4: Sentence Imitation-SS 4, Phonological Awareness-Below Criterion, Number Repetitionforward SS 5, reversed SS 2, total SS 3, RANCriterion Non-normal (CTOPP PA SS 89, PM SS 72, RN SS 67) Case Study

Male: 2nd grade repeater, CA 9-4 Enrolled in language therapy, only disability TOLD:P3: Spoken Language Q SS 76/ Listening Q SS 73/Speaking Q SS 79 DIBELS: 2004-2005 (end of yr) Nonsense Word Fluency 32 MR, Oral Reading Fluency 48 HR 2005-2006 Nonsense Word Fluency 48 MR, Oral Reading Fluency 38 MR ITPA-3: Sound Deletion-SS 9 37%, Rhyming Sequences-SS 7/16%, Sight Decoding-SS 8/25%, Sound Decoding-SS 8/25%, Sight Spelling-SS 7/16%, Sound Spelling-SS 10/50%

PA Activity PA Websites http://www.fcrr.org/activities/ http://141.104.22.210/VDOE/ Instruction/Reading/findings.pdf http://www.balancedreading.com/ assessment/abecedarian.pdf

http://teams.lacoe.edu/ documentation/classrooms/patti/k1/k-1.html

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