Performance Enhancement of TFRC in Wireless Networks

Performance Enhancement of TFRC in Wireless Networks

Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET) Computer Networks Spring 2012 SONET Outline Brief History SONET Overview SONET Rates SONET Ring Architecture Add/Drop Multiplexor (ADM) Section, Line and Path Virtual Tributaries Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) Connection to ATM

Computer Networks SONET 2 Telephone Networks {Brief History} Digital carrier systems The hierarchy of digital signals that the telephone network uses. Trunks and access links organized in DS (digital signal) hierarchy Problem: rates are not multiples of each other. In the 1980s Bellcore developed the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) standard. Previous efforts include: ISDN and

BISDN. Computer Networks SONET 3 North American Digital Hierarchy Primary M23 M12 DS2 6.312 Mbps Multiplex DS1 1.544 Mbps Multiplex Multiplex DS3 44.736 Mbps Eg. Digital Switch x7 x4 24 chan PCM 1

M13 Multiplex DS3 44.736 Mbps 28 Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks European Digital Hierarchy CEPT 1 Primary 3rd order34.368 Mbps 4th order CEPT 4 2.048 Mbps 2nd order8.448 Mbps Multiplex Multiplex Multiplex Multiplex 139.264 Mbps Eg. Digital Switch x4 x4 x4 30 chan PCM Computer Networks

SONET 4 Computer Networks SONET 5 SONET SONET:: encodes bit streams into optical signals propagated over optical fiber. SONET defines a technology for carrying many signals of different capacities through a synchronous, flexible, optical hierarchy. A bit-way implementation providing end-toend transport of bit streams. All clocks in the network are locked to a common master clock so that simple TDM can be used. Multiplexing done by byte interleaving.

SONET is backward compatible to DS-1 and E-1 and forward compatible to ATM cells. Demultiplexing is easy. Computer Networks SONET 6 SONET Transmission links of the telephone network have been changing to SONET where rates are arranged in STS (Synchronous Transfer Signal) hierarchy. The hierarchy is called SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) defined by CCITT.

It is an ITU standard. Computer Networks SONET 7 Computer Networks SONET 8 SONET Rates 10 Gbps Figure 2-37. SONET and SDH Multiplex Rates Tanenbaum Computer Networks SONET 9

SONET Multipexing DS1 DS2 Low-Speed Mapping Function CEPT-1 DS3 44.736 CEPT-4 139.264 ATM 150 Mbps STS-1 51.84 Mbps Medium Speed

Mapping Function HighSpeed Mapping Function HighSpeed Mapping Function STS-1 STS-3c STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 Mux STS-n Scrambl er

OC-n E/O STS-3c STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Computer Networks SONET 10 SONET Synchronous Multiplexing STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 Incoming STS-1 Frames

Map Map STS-1 STS-1 Byte Interleave STS-1 STS-1 Map STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-3 Synchronized New STS-1 Frames Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Computer Networks

SONET 11 Computer Networks SONET 12 SONET Architecture SONET topology can be a mesh, but most often it is a dual ring. Standard component of SONET ring is an ADM (Add/Drop Multiplexer) Drop one incoming multiplexed stream and replace it with another stream. Used to make up bi-directional line switching rings. Computer Networks

SONET 13 SONET Ring a a ADM d ADM ADM b b d ADM c

c (a) Dual ring (b) Loop-around in response to fault Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Computer Networks SONET 14 SONET Ring Changed from FDDI Computer Networks SONET 15

ADM (a) pre-SONET multiplexing MUX MUX DEMUX DEMUX MUX remove tributary insert tributary (b) SONET Add-Drop multiplexing MUX ADM remove tributary

DEMUX insert tributary Computer Networks SONET Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks 16 SONET Ring Regional Ring Metro Ring Inter-Office Rings

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Computer Networks SONET 17 Gigabit ATM Over 10 Gb/s SONET Ring Washington U. St Louis 1995 Computer Networks SONET 18 SONET Architecture (a) STS PTE SONET Terminal

LTE Mux STE STE STE reg reg reg LTE Mux STS PTE SONET Terminal

Section Section STS Line STS-1 Path (b) STE: Section Terminating Equipment, e.g. a repeater LTE: Line Terminating Equipment, e.g. a STS-1 to STS-3 multiplexer Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: PTE: Path Terminating Equipment, e.g. an STS-1 multiplexer Communication Networks path path line section line section section

section optical optical optical optical Computer Networks line section line section section optical optical optical

SONET 19 SONET Architecture OC-3 OC-3 OC-3 OC-1 SONET OC-3 SONET OC-1 REG REG BIM ADM BIM MPX MPX Sectio ns Lines Path The main SONET

elements Computer Networks SONET 20 SONET Architecture BIM = BIM (Byte Interleaved Multiplexer) REG = Regenerator Boosts power of optical signal Optical signal is converted to electrical signal. Amplify electrical signal. Amplified electrical signal converted back to optical

signal. Computer Networks SONET 21 Virtual Tributaries Computer Networks SONET 22 Computer Networks SONET 23 SONET Frame 90 bytes B

Section Overhead B B 87B 3 rows Information Payload 9 Rows Line Overhead 6 rows 125 s Transport overhead SPE Synchronous Payload Enve Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication

Networks Computer Networks SONET 24 SONET Frame Figure 2-36. Two Back-to-Back SONET Frames Tanenbaum Computer Networks SONET 25 SPE straddling SONET Frame frame k Pointer

first octet 87 columns Synchronous Payload Envelope Pointer 9 rows last octet frame k+1 first column is path overhead Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Computer Networks SONET

26 ATM Cells in an STS-3 Frame ATM Cell Format Header 5 Bytes Payload 48 Bytes Computer Networks SONET 27 SONET Summary Brief History SONET Definition and Overview

SONET Rates (STS and OCs) SONET Ring Architecture Add/Drop Multiplexor (ADM) Section, Line and Path Virtual Tributaries Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) Connection to ATM Computer Networks SONET 28

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • ACM KDD Cup A Survey: 1997-2011 Qiang Yang

    ACM KDD Cup A Survey: 1997-2011 Qiang Yang

    ACM KDD Cup A Survey: 1997-2011 Qiang Yang 杨强 (partly based on Xinyue Liu's slides @SFU, and Nathan Liu's slides @hkust) Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  • Part (a) Remember, the AP Test graders dont

    Part (a) Remember, the AP Test graders dont

    That's because we're not using the disk, washer, or shell method. We're simply adding up the areas of all the squares. We can do this addition by integrating the area formula.
  • Scrum - CREATING FLORIDA'S NEXT GENERATION OF COMPUTING ...

    Scrum - CREATING FLORIDA'S NEXT GENERATION OF COMPUTING ...

    When you are in the disorder domain, the way out is to break down the situation into constituent parts and assign each to one of the other four domains. ... Because software is delivered every sprint, the disadvantages of waterfall...
  • Take Five: Basic Principles for Cultivating Catechists ENGAGE

    Take Five: Basic Principles for Cultivating Catechists ENGAGE

    Faith is passed on … from one person to another, just as one candle is lighted from another. … It is through an unbroken chain of witnesses that we come to see the face of Jesus." ... to stop rushing...
  • MD Online IEP System Instructional Series- Module #7

    MD Online IEP System Instructional Series- Module #7

    Data Analytics Steps. The Data Analytics function contains 4 steps that will walk you through the process of selection and presenting your data to support data-driven decision making. The steps are: Step #1 - Pick Metric. Step #2 - Filter...
  • Finite Element Primer for Engineers

    Finite Element Primer for Engineers

    Mike Barton & S. D. Rajan Contents Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM) Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid Mechanics) Examples Commercial FEM Software Competing Technologies Future Trends Internet Resources References FEM Applied to Solid Mechanics...
  • Chapter 1, Section 1

    Chapter 1, Section 1

    (continued) To find Sudzy's unit cost, divide $3.99 by 64 ounces, not 50 ounces. You're getting as many clothes washed as if you bought 64 ounces. To find White-O's unit cost, divide $9.89 by 256 ounces (twice 128 ounces, or...
  • Aucun titre de diapositive

    Aucun titre de diapositive

    Aliments Milieux d 'isolement Dans un prélèvement théoriquement stérile (hémoculture) : Milieu ordinaire Dans les selles : l'excrétion des germes peut être faible au cours des salmonelloses, et leur nombre est inférieur à celui des espèces commensales : Culture sur...