Overview of the Human Body Angie Guggino, MS, ATC, LAT Learning Targets How the body is organized. The function of cells and tissues How the organism grows, develops, and changes throughout the life span. Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathophysiology Anatomy the study of the form and structure of an organism
Physiology the study of the processes of living organisms or why and how they work Pathophysiology the study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes The Human Organism
Atom or ion of an element Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism
Cells What are cells? Basic structural unit of the body (building blocks) What are the functions of cells? Grow Reproduces
use oxygen and nutrients digests food for energy Eliminates waste Produces heat and energy What part of the cell is call the powerhouse? mitochondria What is mitosis? Cell reproduction What is meiosis? Sex cells reproduce
Tissue Epithelial secrete and protect skin Connective support and connect Adipose, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bone Nerve control and communicate Brain and spinal cord Muscle
move and protect Skeletal, cardiac, visceral (smooth) Organ Systems
Right Hypochondriac Region Epigastric Region Left Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Umbilical Region Left Lumbar Region
Right Iliac Region Hypogastric Region Left Iliac Region THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Skeletal System What structures compose the skeletal system? Bone, ligaments, cartilage What are the different types of bones? Long, short, flat, irregular
What are the functions? Framework for the body Protection Storage area Produce blood cells Allow flexibility
What bones make up the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton? Axial: skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum Appendicular: arms, legs, hands, feet, pelvis Joints What is a joint? Place where two bones meet Immovable, slightly moveable, freely moveable What are ligaments? Connect bone to bone What is cartilage?
Connective tissue that forms pads at the end of bones and found in the nasal septum and external ear Diseases or Abnormal Conditions Arthritis (osteoarthritis) Osteoporosis Osteomyelitis (bone infection) Kyphosis (Curve in thoracic) Lordosis (Curve in lumbar)
Scoliosis Bursitis Dislocation Sprain Fractures Types of Fractures
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Muscle System What are the three main functions of muscles? Produce heat Produce movement Maintain posture What are the three types of muscle tissue? Skeletal Cardiac Smooth (visceral) What is the difference between a voluntary muscle and an
involuntary muscle? Voluntary under control Involuntary contract automatically What is a muscle contraction? Tightening or narrowing of a muscle (shorten) Characteristics of Muscle Excitability Ability to respond to a stimulus Extensibility Ability to be stretched
Contractibility Ability to become short and thick Elasticity Ability to return to its original shape Muscle Movements
Adduction vs. abduction Flexion vs. extension Rotation Circumduction Pronation vs. Supination Inversion vs. Eversion Dorsiflexion vs. Plantarflexion THESE ARE THE MOVEMENTS YOU WILL PERFORM IN YOUR VIDEOS. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions
Atrophy (decrease in muscle mass) Hypertrophy (increase of muscle mass) Fibromyalgia (musculoskeletal pain) Strain (micro tears of muscle) Muscular dystrophy (weakening and wasting of muscles) Tendonitis (inflammation of tendon)
Muscle spasms (involuntary contraction) THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Circulatory System What structures make up the circulatory system? Blood, heart, blood vessels What is the function of the circulatory system? Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removes waste List and describe the different types of blood vessels? Arteries: carry blood away from the heart Capillaries: nutrient exchange
Veins: carry blood to the heart List and describe the three types of blood cells? Red blood cells (erythrocytes) White blood cells (leukocytes) Platelets (thrombocytes) Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Hypertension Myocardial Infarction Varicose Veins
Aneurysm Anemia Leukemia Hemophilia Congestive Heart Failure THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Respiratory System What structures make up the respiratory system?
Pharynx Epiglottis Larynx Trachea Diaphragm Bronchi What is respiration? breathing
What are the two stages of respiration? Inspiration and expiration Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Asthma COPD Emphysema Lung cancer Pneumonia Tuberculosis URI
Epistaxis Influenza Bronchitis Laryngitis Rhinitis Sinusitis THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous system Central nervous system
31 spinal nerves Afferent (sensory) parasympathetic Efferent (motor) sympathetic Nervous System What is the basic structural unit of the nervous system?
Neuron (nerve cell) What is homeostasis? balance Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Neuritis Parkinsons Disease Shingles Cerebrovascular accidents (stroke) Epilepsy
Meningitis Multiple Sclerosis Paralysis Quadriplegia Paraplegia Hemiplegia THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Integumentary System What is it? Skin, hair, nails What three layers make up the skin?
Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous or hypodermis What are the four types of glands? Sweat glands Sebaceous glands Ceruminous glands Mammary glands
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Protection Regulate body temperature Eliminate wastes through perspiration Store energy in fat Senses
Produce vitamin D What are the common eruptions of the skin? Vesicles Blisters or sacs full of fluid Papules Firm raised areas on the skin Crusts Areas of dried pus and blood Pustules
Sacs filled with pus Macules Flat spots on the skin Wheals Itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape Ulcer Deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the dermis Diseases and Abnormal Conditions
Acne Athletes foot Cancer of the skin Contact dermatitis Eczema
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