Organizational Behavior, Seventeenth Edition

Organizational Behavior, Seventeenth Edition

Organizational Behavior Seventeenth Edition Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives (1 of 2) 9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups. 9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development. 9.3 Show how role requirements change in different

situations. 9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individuals behavior. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives (2 of 2) 9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance. 9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness. 9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.

Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Distinguish Between Different Types of Groups (1 of 5) A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Groups can be either formal or informal. Formal groups: those defined by the organizations structure. Informal groups: alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Distinguish Between Different Types of Groups (2 of 5) Social identity theory: considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups. People have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their self-esteem gets tied into the performance of the group. Social identities help us understand who we are and where we fit in with people. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Distinguish Between Different Types

of Groups (3 of 5) Note: Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) survey of 501 individuals and how drinking is viewed in their organization at a range of workrelated activities. Source: Based on S. M. Heathfield, To Drink or Not to Drink: Does Alcohol Drinking Mix Safely with Work Events? About.com Guide, 2013, http://humanresources.about.com/od/networking/qt/drink_i3.htm. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Distinguish Between Different Types of Groups (4 of 5) Ingroups and Outgroups Ingroup favoritism occurs when we see members of our group as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.

Whenever there is an ingroup, there is by necessity an outgroup, which is sometimes everyone else, but is usually an identified group known by the ingroups members. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Distinguish Between Different Types of Groups (5 of 5) Social Identity Threat Ingroups and outgroups pave the way for social identity threat, which is akin to stereotype threat. Individuals believe they will be personally negatively evaluated due to their association with a devalued

group, and they may lose confidence and performance effectiveness. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Describe the Punctuated Equilibrium Model Exhibit 9-1 The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Role Requirements Change (1 of 3) Role: a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to

someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role perception: ones perception of how to act in a given situation. Role expectations: how others believe one should act in a given situation. Psychological contract Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Role Requirements Change (2 of 3) Role conflict: situation in which an individual faces divergent role expectations. We can experience interrole conflict when the

expectations of our different, separate groups are in opposition. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Role Requirements Change (3 of 3) Role Play and Assimilation Philip Zimbardos prison experiment. Participants easily and rapidly assumed roles that were very different from their inherent personalities. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Show How Norms Exert Influence On An Individuals Behavior (1 of 7) Norms: Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the groups members. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Norms Exert Influence On An Individuals Behavior (2 of 7) Norms and Emotions A recent study found that, in a task group, individuals emotions influenced the groups emotions and vice versa.

Researchers have also found that norms dictated the experience of emotions for the individuals and for the groups in other words, people grew to interpret their shared emotions in the same way. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Norms Exert Influence On An Individuals Behavior (3 of 7) Exhibit 9-2 Examples of Cards Used in Aschs Study Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Norms Exert Influence

On An Individuals Behavior (4 of 7) Norms and Emotions A recent study found that, in a task group, individuals emotions influenced the groups emotions and vice versa. Researchers have also found that norms dictated the experience of emotions for the individuals and for the groups in other words, people grew to interpret their shared emotions in the same way. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Norms Exert Influence On An Individuals Behavior (5 of 7)

Positive Norms and Group Outcomes One goal of every organization with corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives is for its values to hold normative sway over employees. If employees aligned their thinking with positive norms, these norms would become stronger and the probability of positive impact would grow exponentially. Positive group norms may well beget positive outcomes, but only if other factors are present. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Norms Exert Influence On An Individuals Behavior (6 of 7)

Exhibit 9-3 Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization

Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Sources: S. H. Appelbaum, G. D. Iaconi, and A. Matousek, Positive and Negative Deviant Workplace Behaviors: Causes, Impacts, and Solutions, Corporate Governance 7, no. 5 (2007): 58698; and R. W. Griffin, and A. OLeary-Kelly, The Dark Side of Organizational

Behavior (New York: Wiley, 2004). Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Norms Exert Influence On An Individuals Behavior (7 of 7) Norms and Culture Do people in collectivist cultures have different norms than people in individualist cultures? Of course they do. But did you know that our orientation may be changed, even after years of living in one society. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Status and Size

Differences Affect Performance (1 of 3) Status: a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Status characteristics theory: status is derived from one of three sources: The power a person wields over others. A persons ability to contribute to a groups goals. An individuals personal characteristics. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Status and Size Differences Affect Performance (2 of 3) Status and Norms: high status individuals often have

more freedom to deviate from norms. Status and Group Interaction: high status people are often more assertive. Status Inequity: perceived inequity creates disequilibrium and can lead to resentment and corrective behavior. Status and Stigmatization: stigma by association. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Show How Status and Size Differences Affect Performance (3 of 3) Group size affects the groups overall behavior. Large groups are good for gaining diverse input. Smaller groups are better doing something with input.

Social loafing: the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Integrating Cohesiveness and Diversity for Group Effectiveness (1 of 2) Exhibit 9-4 Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Integrating Cohesiveness and Diversity for Group Effectiveness (2 of 2)

Diversity: degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another. Increases group conflict, especially in the short term. Culturally and demographically diverse groups may perform better over time. May help them be more open-minded and creative. Faultlines Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (1 of 8) Strengths of group decision making: More complete information and knowledge Increased diversity of views

Increased acceptance of solutions Weaknesses of group decision making: Time consuming Conformity pressures Dominance of a few members Ambiguous responsibility Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (2 of 8) Effectiveness and efficiency of group decisions: Accuracy Speed Creativity

Acceptance Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (3 of 8) Groupthink: situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. Groupshift: a change between a groups decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Group Decision Making (4 of 8) Most group decision making takes place in interacting groups. Members meet face-to-face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other. Interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (5 of 8) Brainstorming can overcome pressures for conformity. In a brainstorming session:

The group leader states the problem. Members then free-wheel as many alternatives as they can. No criticism is allowed. One idea stimulates others, and group members are encouraged to think the unusual. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (6 of 8) The nominal group technique: restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision making process. Group members are all physically present, but

members operate independently. Permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does the interacting group. Nominal groups outperform brainstorming groups. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (7 of 8) Steps for a nominal group: Each member independently writes down his/her ideas on the problem. After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group. The ideas are discussed for clarity.

Each group member rank-orders the ideas. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking determines the final decision. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Group Decision Making (8 of 8) Exhibit 9-5 Evaluating Group Effectiveness Type of Group Type of Group Type of Group

Effectiveness Criteria Interacting Brainstorming Nominal Number and quality of ideas Low Moderate

High Social pressure High Low Moderate Money costs Low

Low Low Speed Moderate Moderate Moderate Task orientation

Low High High Potential for interpersonal conflict High Low Moderate

Commitment to solution High Not applicable Moderate Development of group cohesiveness High High

Moderate Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Implications for Managers (1 of 2) Recognize that groups can dramatically affect individual behavior in organizations, to either positive or negative effect. Therefore, pay special attention to roles, norms, and cohesionto understand how these are operating within a group is to understand how the group is likely to behave. To decrease the possibility of deviant workplace activities, ensure that group norms do not support antisocial

behavior. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Implications for Managers (2 of 2) Pay attention to the status aspect of groups. Because lower-status people tend to participate less in group discussions, groups with high status differences are likely to inhibit input from lower-status members and reduce their potential. Use larger groups for fact-finding activities and smaller groups for action-taking tasks. With larger groups, provide measures of individual performance. To increase employee satisfaction, make certain people

perceive their job roles accurately. Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright Copyright 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Succinct Summarization of Transactional Databases: An Overlapped Hyperrectangle

    Succinct Summarization of Transactional Databases: An Overlapped Hyperrectangle

    [Lakshmanan02] Laks V. S. Lakshmanan, Raymond T. Ng, Christine Xing Wang, Xiaodong Zhou, and Theodore J. Johnson. The generalized mdl approach for summarization. In VLDB '02, pp 766-777, 2002. [Gao06] Byron J. Gao and Martin Ester. Turning clusters into patterns:...
  • Play Therapy - University of Toronto

    Play Therapy - University of Toronto

    Play Therapy Presented by Cory Melissa Boyer, M.S.W., R.S.W. July 14, 2004 Definition In her book, Play Therapy (ballantine, 1969), Virginia Axline, a leading expert in play therapy, explains: "Play Therapy is based upon the fact that play is the...
  • Driver Information Systems

    Driver Information Systems

    Summary Report Project Name: Model-Driven Health Tools (MDHT) Brief Project Description: Support the complete lifecycle of designing CDA implementation guides, publishing standards specification and developer docs, generating production quality Java libraries for use by application developers, and validating CDA instances...
  • Diapositive 1

    Diapositive 1

    And in R. v. Shoker, 2006 SCC 44, [2006] 2 S.C.R. 399, it notably drew no distinction between drug and alcohol testing by urine, blood or breath sample, concluding that the "seizure of bodily samples is highly intrusive and, as...
  • The New Maine Regional Library System

    The New Maine Regional Library System

    The future of the MRLS was discussed in 1999. A paper entitled Maine's Regional Library System: A History was presented by Robert C. Woodward on February 24, 1999, at the Bangor Public Library during a meeting of the Executive Boards...
  • Anycast DNS & DHCP - University of Waterloo

    Anycast DNS & DHCP - University of Waterloo

    Anycast DNS Outline Current Anycast routing Anycast implemented Problems resolved Future Definitions DNS Authoritative Recursive/Caching Current DNS IP Address Management: Maintain DNS: ISC BIND Current DNS - Layer 1 Current DNS Layer 7 DNS Problems 1 Load Redundancy Configuration DNS...
  • Using Naturalistic Driving Data to Assess the Prevalence

    Using Naturalistic Driving Data to Assess the Prevalence

    Largest naturalistic study of teen crashes in history. Released in March 2015 . Overview. Researchers from the University of Iowa examined data from teen driver crashes captured on the Lytx Drive Cam in-vehicle video camera system.
  • Slajd 1 - ifa.wfil.uni.opole.pl

    Slajd 1 - ifa.wfil.uni.opole.pl

    FACULTY OF PHILOLOGY. ADAPTATION DAY. BA STUDIES. 30.09.2019. English . Philology, academic. profile. English . Philology, practical. profile