Ontology Summit2007 Survey Response Analysis Ken Baclawski Northeastern University Outline Communities Ontology value, issues, problems, solutions Ontology languages Terms for ontology Ontologies April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 2 Communities Diversity of community membership All 15 communities listed in the survey had at least six members. 19 other communities were added by respondents. Community representatives 24 communities had at least one representative.
The communities overlap one another. Community memberships and representatives April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 3 Ontology: Value & Issues, as well as Problems & Solutions The answers to the four questions were arranged by community. Full answers Individual values, issues, problems and solutions were extracted and arranged by community. Values Issues Problems Solutions April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 4
Ontology languages and other "meta" languages ANSI IRDS and the ER model: Information Resource Dictionary System CL and IKL: Common Logic ISO 15926: An International Standard for the representation of process plant life-cycle information OMG languages: MOF, UML, ODM, QVT, OCL: Meta Object Facility, Unified Modeling Language, OWL: Web Ontology Language RDF/S: Resource Description Framework RuleML: Rule Markup Language SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation System SWRL: Semantic Web Rule Language UIMA: Unstructured Information Management Architecture April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 5 Ontology languages and other
"meta" languages Languages CL and IKL IRDS and ER ISO 15926 OMG OWL RDF/S RuleML SKOS SWRL UIMA April 23, 2007 Structure Expressivity N/A High N/A Low N/A 3 levels Granularity Intended Use Reasoning Strictness Design N/A Yes PrescriptiveN/A N/A Databases No PrescriptiveN/A Oil and gas production facilities Software Engineering
N/A Web AnnotationYes PrescriptiveN/A Web Annotation Rule Engines (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 6 Terms synonymous with or similar to "ontology" There were 41 terms similar to ontology Terms ordered by called an ontology Alphabetical list of terms Reference links for terms Spreadsheet (csv format) April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 7 Terms for Ontology Business Rule Design (2) Classification (2)
Concept system (4) Content Models (3) Controlled Terminology (3) Controlled vocabulary / thesaurus (8) April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum Data dictionaries (2) Domain model (2) Enterprise knowledge base (2) Entity Relationship Diagram (3) Entity Relationship Model/Data Model (3) 8 Terms for Ontology
First Order Logic Ontology (5) Folksonomy (3) Formal ontology (5) Glossary (1) Hierarchical Taxonomy (1) Library Classification schemes (3) April 23, 2007 Logical theory, upper ontology (5) Metadata (3) Metadata Scheme (2) Metathesaurus (4) Model (2) (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 9 Terms for Ontology
Network Taxonomy (sometimes called semantic network or thesaurus) (3) Nomenclature (1) Object Information Model (5) Ontology (5) Ontology (computer science) (5) April 23, 2007 Ontology (philosophy) (1) Ontology Model (0) OWL Ontology (5) Reference Model (4) Ring Taxonomy (synonyms) (1) Schema (3) (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 10 Terms for Ontology
Semantic data model (3) Semantic network (4) Tag cloud (3) Tag library (2) Taxonomy (2.5) Thesaurus (3) Upper ontology (5) April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 11 Term Gloss # Structure Expressive Granularity Use Reasoning Strictness Design Business Rule Design A framework for building multi-level2 conditional (If..Then...Else) statements with an underlying Classification 2 Concept system
Set of concepts and the relations 4among them [Dan Gillman] Content Models describes how content in a CMS is 3 structured and how different types of content can relate to Controlled Terminology set of terms representing the system 3 of concepts of a particular subject field [Chintan Patel] controlled vocabulary / thesaurus The Metathesaurus is a very large,3 multi-purpose, and multi-lingual vocabulary database that Controlled vocabulary thesaurus It consists of sets of terms naming 5 descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searchi data dictionaries a list of natural language definitions 2 for application specific data [Doug Holmes] domain model typically a UML model of a software 2 application domain [Doug Holmes] enterprise knowledge base "a natural language/ textual description 2 of organizational "knowledge about specified topics [D Entity Relationship Diagram A model of (entity) concpets and relations 3 from which a database schema is developed [Doug Entity Relationship Model/Data Model A collection of entity types possessing 3 attributes and related by relationships, including subty First Order Logic Ontology A computer interpretable collection 5 of classes, relations, and rules that together provide a the Folksonomy A folksonomy is a user generated3taxonomy used to categorize and retrieve Web pages, pho formal ontology
Vocabulary of terms together with5a set of expressions in a formal logic (with syntax and mod Glossary A list of terms with agreed natural1language definitions arranged in alphabetical order [Matthew Hierarchical Taxonomy Classification Scheme - World Bank 1 Topics [Denise Bedford] Library Classification schemes The classification scheme is a collection 3 of subject classes [Nabonita Guha] logical theory, upper ontology a logical theory about aspects or domains 5 of the real world [Leo Obrst] Metadata Data that defines and describes other 3 data [Dan Gillman] Metadata Scheme Set of metadata attributes which are 2 required for all WB content. [Denise Bedford] Metathesaurus "Vocabulary database. The term 4Metathesaurus draws on Webster's Dictionary third definitio Model A set of inter-related documents that 2 describe an IT service or system. Each model consists Network Taxonomy (sometimes calledExtended semantic thesaurus network orstructure thesaurus) of deep 3 concepts (not words!!!) [Denise Bedford] nomenclature 1 Object Information Model
represents the types of information 5 about members of a class or meta-information about a cla Ontology In both computer science and information 4 science, an ontology is a data model that represen ontology (computer science) An ontology is a specification of a5conceptualization (Tom Gruber/1993) [Tom Gruber] ontology (philosophy) the study of being or existence [Tom 1 Gruber] OWL Ontology A collection of formal classes and5relationships using the OWL language that are theory of wh April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum 12 Reference Model A abstract model capturing the major 4 concepts of a systems and the relationships amongst t Ring Taxonomy (synonyms) Set of equivalent terms, including 1predecessors, successors, variant lexical forms, abbreviatio Ontology Artifacts After removing duplications there were 70 ontology examples. Ontologies arranged by ontology term Alphabetical list of ontologies Spreadsheet (csv format) April 23, 2007 (c) 2007 Ontolog Forum
13 Ontology CAO StructureExpressiveGranularity Use Reasoning Strictness Design Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) 5 CMC Controlled Vocabularies 2 CMC model 3 Common Anatomical Reference Ontology (CARO)5 Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) 1 Controlled Health Thesaurus 2 Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) DOLCE - D & S DOLCE 4.5 Dublin Core 4 ER Model 3 Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution 2 Element Enterprise Topic Classification Scheme 1 FLOWS Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) vocabulary specification5 Gene Ontology (GO) 5 Generalized Upper Model (GUM)
ICD-9 ISO 10303 (STEP) 3 ISO 15926-2 1.5 ISO Country Names 1 ISO Languages 1 ISO/IEC 11179 - Metadata registries 3 ISO/IEEE 11073-10101 1 International Classification of Diseases Version 102(ICD-10) Joint Warfare Simulation Object Library 3 April Subject 23, 2007 (c) 2007 14 Medical Headings (MeSH) 5 Ontolog Forum Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN)
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