Privacy Week 5 Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 1 What is privacy? Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 2 What does privacy mean to you? How would you define privacy?
What does it meant to you for something to be private? Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 3 Concept versus right Privacy as concept What is it How and why it is valued Privacy as right How it is (or should be) protected By law By policy
By technology Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 4 Hard to define Privacy is a value so complex, so entangled in competing and contradictory dimensions, so engorged with various and distinct meanings, that I sometimes despair whether it can be usefully addressed at all. Robert C. Post, Three Concepts of Privacy, 89 Geo. L.J. 2087 (2001). Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
5 Some definitions from the literature Personhood Intimacy Secrecy Contextual integrity Limited access to the self Control over information Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 6
Limited access to self the right to be let alone - Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, The Right to Privacy, 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890) Being alone. - Shane (age 4) our concern over our accessibility to others: the extent to which we are known to others, the extent to which others have physical access to us, and the extent to which we are the subject of others attention.
- Ruth Gavison, Privacy and the Limits of the Law, Yale Law Journal 89 (1980) Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 7 Control over information Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others. each individual is continually engaged in a personal adjustment process in which he balances the desire for privacy with the desire for disclosure and communication. Alan Westin, Privacy and Freedom, 1967
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 8 Realizing limited access and control Limited access Laws to prohibit or limit collection, disclosure, contact Technology to facilitate anonymous transactions, minimize disclosure Control Laws to mandate choice (opt-in/opt-out)
Technology to facilitate informed consent, keep track of and enforce privacy preferences Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 9 Westins four states of privacy Solitude individual separated from the group and freed from the observation of other persons Intimacy individual is part of a small unit Anonymity individual in public but still seeks and finds freedom
from identification and surveillance Reserve the creation of a psychological barrier against unwanted intrusion - holding back communication Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 10 Britney Spears: We just need privacy You have to realize that we're people and that we need, we just need privacy and we need our respect, and those are things that you have to have as a
human being. Britney Spears 15 June 2006 NBC Dateline http://www.cnn.com/2006/SHOWBIZ/Music/06/15/people.spears.reut/index.html Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 11 Only a goldfish can live without privacy Is this true?
Can humans live without privacy? Privacy as animal instinct Is privacy necessary for species survival? Eagles eating a deer carcass http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/eagle/CaptureE63.html Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 13 Privacy laws and selfregulation Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 14
Terminology Data subject The person whose data is collected Data controller The entity responsible for collected data Primary use of personal information (primary purpose) Using information for the purposes intended by the data subjects when they provided the information Secondary use of personal information (secondary purpose) Using information for purposes that go beyond the primary purpose
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 15 OECD fair information principles http://www.datenschutz-berlin.de/gesetze/ internat/ben.htm Collection limitation Data quality Purpose specification Use limitation Security safeguards Openness Individual participation Accountability
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 16 US FTC simplified principles Notice and disclosure Choice and consent Data security Data quality and access Recourse and remedies US Federal Trade Commission, Privacy Online: A Report to Congress (June 1998), http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/ Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
17 Privacy laws around the world Privacy laws and regulations vary widely throughout the world US has mostly sector-specific laws, with relatively minimal protections - often referred to as patchwork quilt Federal Trade Commission has jurisdiction over fraud and deceptive practices Federal Communications Commission regulates telecommunications European Data Protection Directive requires all European Union countries to adopt similar comprehensive privacy laws that recognize privacy as fundamental human right Privacy commissions in each country (some countries have
national and state commissions) Many European companies non-compliant with privacy laws (2002 study found majority of UK web sites non-compliant) Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 18 US law basics Constitutional law governs the rights of individuals with respect to the government Tort law governs disputes between private individuals or other private entities Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 19
US Constitution No explicit privacy right, but a zone of privacy recognized in its penumbras, including 1st amendment (right of association) 3rd amendment (prohibits quartering of soldiers in homes) 4th amendment (prohibits unreasonable search and seizure) 5th amendment (no self-incrimination) 9th amendment (all other rights retained by the people) Penumbra: fringe at the edge of a deep shadow create by an object
standing in the light (Smith 2000, p. 258, citing Justice William O. Douglas in Griswold v. Connecticut) Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 20 Federal statutes and state laws Federal statutes Tend to be narrowly focused State law State constitutions may recognize explicit right to privacy (Georgia, Hawaii) State statutes and common (tort) law Local laws and regulations (for example: ordinances
on soliciting anonymously) Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 21 Four aspects of privacy tort You can sue for damages for the following torts (Smith 2000, p. 232-233) Disclosure of truly intimate facts May be truthful Disclosure must be widespread, and offensive or objectionable to a person of ordinary sensibilities Must not be newsworthy or legitimate public interest False light Personal information or picture published out of context
Misappropriation (or right of publicity) Commercial use of name or face without permission Intrusion into a persons solitude Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 22 Some US privacy laws Bank Secrecy Act, 1970 Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1971 Privacy Act, 1974 Right to Financial Privacy Act, 1978 Cable TV Privacy Act, 1984 Video Privacy Protection Act, 1988
Family Educational Right to Privacy Act, 1993 Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 1994 Freedom of Information Act, 1966, 1991, 1996 Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 23 US law recent additions HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996) When implemented, will protect medical records and other individually identifiable health information COPPA (Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act, 1998) Web sites that target children must obtain parental
notice of data collected, purposes, and recipients choice of opt-out of 3rd-party transfers, opt-in for sensitive data access rights to delete or edit inaccurate information security for storage of collected data enforcement mechanisms for individual complaints Approved July 26, 2000 by EU reserves right to renegotiate if remedies for EU citizens prove to be inadequate Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 25 Voluntary privacy guidelines Direct Marketing Association Privacy Promise http://www.thedma.org/library/
Monitor pending privacy legislation Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 28 Seal programs TRUSTe http://www.truste.org BBBOnline http://www.bbbonline.org CPA WebTrust http://www.cpawebtrust.org/ Japanese Privacy Mark http://privacymark.org/ Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 29
Seal program problems Certify only compliance with stated policy Limited ability to detect non-compliance Minimal privacy requirements Dont address privacy issues that go beyond the web site Nonetheless, reporting requirements are forcing licensees to review their own policies and practices and think carefully before introducing policy changes Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 30 Privacy policies
Types of information collected Childrens privacy Including information about cookies How information is used Conditions under which information might be shared Information about opt-in/opt-out Information about access Information about data retention policies There is lots of information
to convey -- but policy should be brief and easy-to-read too! Information about seal programs What is opt-in? What is opt-out? Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 33 How are online privacy concerns different from offline privacy concerns? Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
34 Web privacy concerns Data is often collected silently Web allows large quantities of data to be collected inexpensively and unobtrusively Data from multiple sources may be merged Non-identifiable information can become identifiable when merged Data collected for business purposes may be used in civil and criminal proceedings Users given no meaningful choice Few sites offer alternatives Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
35 Browser Chatter Browsers chatter about IP address, domain name, organization, Referring page Platform: O/S, browser What information is requested URLs and search terms Cookies Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
To anyone who might be listening End servers System administrators Internet Service Providers Other third parties Advertising networks Anyone who might subpoena log files later 36 Typical HTTP request with cookie
Referer log problems GET methods result in values in URL These URLs are sent in the referer header to next host Example: http://www.merchant.com/cgi_bin/ order? name=Tom+Jones&address=here+there &credit+card=234876923234&PIN=123 4&->index.html Access log example Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 38 Cookies
What are cookies? What are people concerned about cookies? What useful purposes do cookies serve? Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 39 Cookies 101 Cookies can be useful Used like a staple to attach multiple parts of a form together Used to identify you when you return to a web site so you dont have to remember a password Used to help web sites understand how people use them
Cookies can do unexpected things Used to profile users and track their activities, especially across web sites Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 40 How cookies work the basics A cookie stores a small string of characters A web site asks your browser to set a cookie Whenever you return to that site your browser sends the cookie back automatically Please store cookie xyzzy
site Here is cookie xyzzy browser First visit to site Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ site browser Later visits 41
How cookies work advanced Cookies are only sent back to the site that set them but this may be any host in domain Sites setting cookies indicate path, domain, and expiration for cookies Send me with any request to x.com until 2008 Send me with requests for
index.html on y.x.com for this session only Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ Cookies can store user info or a database key that is used to look up user info either way the cookie enables info to be linked to the current browsing session User=Joe Email= [email protected]
x.com Visits=13 Database Users Email Visits User=4576 904309 42 Cookie terminology Cookie Replay sending a cookie back to a site Session cookie cookie replayed only during current browsing session Persistent cookie cookie replayed until expiration date
First-party cookie cookie associated with the site the user requested Third-party cookie cookie associated with an image, ad, frame, or other content from a site with a different domain name that is embedded in the site the user requested Browser interprets third-party cookie based on domain name, even if both domains are owned by the same company Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 43 Web bugs Invisible images (1-by-1 pixels, transparent) embedded in web pages and cause referer info and cookies to be transferred Also called web beacons, clear gifs, tracker gifs,etc.
Work just like banner ads from ad networks, but you cant see them unless you look at the code behind a web page Also embedded in HTML formatted email messages, MS Word documents, etc. For software to detect web bugs see: http://www.bugnosis.org Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 44 How data can be linked Every time the same cookie is replayed to a site, the site may add information to the record associated with that cookie
Number of times you visit a link, time, date What page you visit What page you visited last Information you type into a web form If multiple cookies are replayed together, they are usually logged together, effectively linking their data Narrow scoped cookie might get logged with broad scoped cookie Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 45
Ad networks search for medical information buy CD set cookie replay cookie Ad Ad Search Service Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
Ad company can get your name and address from CD order and link them to your search CD Store 46 What ad networks may know Personal data: Email address Full name Mailing address (street,
city, state, and Zip code) Phone number Transactional data: Details of plane trips Search phrases used at search engines Health conditions It was not necessary for me to click on the banner ads for information to be sent to DoubleClick servers. Richard M. Smith Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 47
Online and offline merging In November 1999, DoubleClick purchased Abacus Direct, a company possessing detailed consumer profiles on more than 90% of US households. In mid-February 2000 DoubleClick announced plans to merge anonymous online data with personal information obtained from offline databases By the first week in March 2000 the plans were put on hold Stock dropped from $125 (12/99) to $80 (03/00) Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 48
Offline data goes online The Cranor familys 25 most frequent grocery purchase s (sorted by nutrition al Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 49
Subpoenas Data on online activities is increasingly of interest in civil and criminal cases The only way to avoid subpoenas is to not have data In the US, your files on your computer in your home have much greater legal protection that your files stored on a server on the network Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 50 P3P: Introduction
Original Idea behind P3P A framework for automated privacy discussions Web sites disclose their privacy practices in standard machine-readable formats Web browsers automatically retrieve P3P privacy policies and compare them to users privacy preferences Sites and browsers can then negotiate about privacy terms Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 52 P3P: Introduction
P3P history Idea discussed at November 1995 FTC meeting Ad Hoc Internet Privacy Working Group convened to discuss the idea in Fall 1996 W3C began working on P3P in Summer 1997 Several working groups chartered with dozens of participants from industry, non-profits, academia, government Numerous public working drafts issued, and feedback resulted in many changes Early ideas about negotiation and agreement ultimately removed Automatic data transfer added and then removed Patent issue stalled progress, but ultimately became non-issue P3P issued as official W3C Recommendation on April 16, 2002 http://www.w3.org/TR/P3P/ Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
53 P3P: Introduction P3P1.0 A first step Offers an easy way for web sites to communicate about their privacy policies in a standard machine-readable format Can be deployed using existing web servers This will enable the development of tools that: Provide snapshots of sites policies Compare policies with user preferences Alert and advise the user
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 54 P3P: Introduction The basics P3P provides a standard XML format that web sites use to encode their privacy policies Sites also provide XML policy reference files to indicate which policy applies to which part of the site Sites can optionally provide a compact policy by configuring their servers to issue a special P3P header when cookies are set No special server software required User software to read P3P policies called a P3P
user agent Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 55 P3P: Enabling your web site overview and options Whats in a P3P policy? Name and contact information for site The kind of access provided Mechanisms for resolving privacy disputes The kinds of data collected How collected data is used, and whether individuals can opt-in or opt-out of any of these uses Whether/when data may be shared and whether there is opt-in or opt-out
Data retention policy Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 56 P3P/XML encoding P3P version Statement human-readable P3P policy name
Human-readable explanation We keep standard web server logs. How data may be used Data recipients Data retention policy
A protocol for transporting P3P policies over HTTP Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 58 P3P: Introduction A simple HTTP transaction GET /index.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.att.com . . . Request web page Web Server HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html . . . Send web page Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 59 P3P: Introduction with P3P 1.0 added GET /w3c/p3p.xml HTTP/1.1 Web Host: www.att.com Server Request Policy Reference File Send Policy Reference File
time it changes http://www.att.com/accessatt/ P3P clients can check privacy policies on all objects in a web page, including ads and invisible images http://adforce.imgis.com/?adlink|2|68523|1|146|ADFORCE Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 61 P3P: Introduction
P3P in IE6 Automatic processing of compact policies only; third-party cookies without compact policies blocked by default Privacy icon on status bar indicates that a cookie has been blocked pop-up appears the first time the privacy icon appears Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 62
P3P: Introduction Users can click on privacy icon for list of cookies; privacy summaries are available at sites that are P3P-enabled Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 63 P3P: Introduction
Privacy summary report is generated automatically from full P3P policy Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 64 P3P: Introduction P3P in Netscape 7 Preview version similar to IE6, focusing, on cookies; cookies without compact policies (both first-party
and third-party) are flagged rather than blocked by default Indicates flagged cookie Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 65 P3P: Introduction Users can view English translation of (part of) compact policy in Cookie Manager
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 66 P3P: Introduction A policy summary can be generated automatically from full P3P policy Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 67 Privacy Bird Free download of beta from
http://privacybird.org/ Origninally developed at AT&T Labs Released as open source Browser helper object for IE6 Reads P3P policies at all P3P-enabled sites automatically Bird icon at top of browser window indicates whether site matches users privacy preferences Clicking on bird icon gives more information Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 68 Chirping bird is privacy indicator
Red bird indicates mismatch Check embedded content too Privacy settings Example: Sending flowers Privacy Finder Prototype developed at AT&T Labs, improved and deployed by CUPS Uses Google or Yahoo! API to retrieve search results Checks each result for P3P policy Evaluates P3P policy against users preferences
Reorders search results Composes search result page with privacy annotations next to each P3P-enabled result Users can retrieve Privacy Report similar to Privacy Bird policy summary Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 76 Demo Evaluating Privacy Finder Have enough sites adopted P3P for Privacy Finder to be useful? S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and A. Chowdhury. An Analysis of P3P-Enabled Web Sites among Top-20 Search Results. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Electronic Commerce August 14-16, 2006,
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. Will the prominent display of privacy information cause consumers to take privacy into account when making online purchasing decisions? J. Gideon, S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and A. Acquisti. Power Strips, Prophylactics, and Privacy, Oh My! In Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security, 12-14 July 2006, Pittsburgh, PA. J. Tsai, S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and A. Acquisti. The Effect of Online Privacy Information on Purchasing Behavior: An Experimental Study. Workshop on the Economics of Information Security, June 7-8, 2007, Pittsburgh, PA. Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 78
P3P adoption study Compiled two lists of search terms: Typical: 20,000 terms sampled from week of AOL user queries Ecommerce: 940 terms screen scraped from Froogle front page Submitted search terms to Google, Yahoo!, and AOL search engines and collected top 20 results for each term Checked each result for P3P policy and evaluated policies Checked for P3P policies on 30,000 domains most clicked on by AOL search engine users Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/
79 Frequency of P3P-enabled hits P3P-enabled top-20 search results Typical search terms: 10% E-commerce search terms: 21% Searches that return at least one P3P-enabled results In top 10 results: 68% In top 20 results: 83% AOL users will find sites with good privacy policies in first 2 pages of results about 1/3 of the time Weve also collected data about types of privacy practices, types of sites that have adopted P3P, and errors in P3P policies
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 80 Results: Most popular P3P policies Typical Terms Ecommerce Terms http://privacy.yahoo.com/ http://privacy.yahoo.com/ http://about.com/
Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 81 Does Privacy Finder influence purchases? Online shopping studies Pay participants to make online purchases with their own credit cards Some use Privacy Finder and some use generic search engine Experiment with privacy sensitivity of purchase and price sensitivity Lab studies Study of college students purchasing power strips and
condoms, no price incentive (reimburse cost) Study of Pittsburgh residents purchasing batteries and sex toys, with price incentive (keep the change) Larger study testing additional conditions planned Privacy Finder field study planned Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 82 Lab study design 16 participants in each condition Condition 1: No information Condition 2: Irrelevant information Condition 3: Privacy information Products
Non-privacy Sensitive - batteries Privacy sensitive - sex toy Participants paid fixed amount and told to keep the change Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 83 Privacy information condition Privacy premium: $0.69 4.8% Irrelevant information condition
No information condition Results % Purchases by Level of Privacy No Information Handicap Privacy 100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80%
0% 0% None None Low Low Med. Med. High High None None
Batteries Low Low Med. Med. Sex Toy Level Level of of Privacy Privacy High High
Conclusions Accessible privacy information affects consumer behavior Consumers willing to pay for better privacy Privacy Finder helps users make privacy informed decisions Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 88 P3P: Introduction Why web sites adopt P3P Demonstrate corporate leadership on privacy issues
Show customers they respect their privacy Demonstrate to regulators that industry is taking voluntary steps to address consumer privacy concerns Distinguish brand as privacy friendly Prevent IE6 from blocking their cookies Anticipation that consumers will soon come to expect P3P on all web sites Individuals who run sites value personal privacy Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 89 P3P: Introduction P3P early adopters
News and information sites CNET, About.com, BusinessWeek Search engines Yahoo, Lycos Ad networks DoubleClick, Avenue A Telecom companies AT&T Financial institutions Fidelity Computer hardware and software vendors IBM, Dell, Microsoft, McAfee Retail stores Fortunoff, Ritz Camera Government agencies FTC, Dept. of Commerce, Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner Non-profits - CDT Lorrie Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 90 P3P: The future
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