Objectives of the Information System

Objectives of the Information System

System Descriptions Accounting Information Systems The Cash Receipts Cycle The points to think about are Why do we do all of the things that we do? How can we tell this story more efficiently and (perhaps) effectively? We will tell the story sort of like a play with characters acting out parts. Why do we care about accounting

information systems? What do accounting information systems do as compared to manual entry systems? Another way of asking this question is: What do we wish to accomplish with our system? Why do we care about accounting information systems? There are several related answers to this question, including the following: Make certain that the transaction information that is recorded fully and correctly reflects the transactions which have occurred.

Provide some protection against theft and fraudulent financial statements. Provide managers with the type of information that they require to make decisions. The first two items are termed control characteristics of the system. How does the system (the way you process information) influence the likelihood of errors and fraud? The third item relates to the efficiency of the information system at providing useful information for management decisions.

Control Characteristics All transactions which were entered into were recorded. In other words, there are no transactions (such as purchases for credit) which exist, but which did not get recorded (Input completeness ). All transactions which were recorded actually occurred (Input validity) . We want to make sure that transactions did not accidentally get recorded twice and that no fraudulent transactions were recorded. All transactions which occurred and which were recorded were properly authorized (Input validity). Suppose the mailroom clerk sold the company truck for $25.00 to his best friend! All recorded transactions are recorded and transcribed accurately (Input accuracy). We want to make sure (first of all) that

everything got entered correctly! The double-entry system of bookkeeping helps with this. Transaction cycles When a company sells its product, it increases one asset (either cash or accounts receivable) and decreases another (inventory). Profit comes from the difference in value between the asset received and the asset given up. We can think of the sale and purchase of inventory as cycles. You continually have to purchase new items to sell or you will go out of business.

cash decreases cash increases Cash Receipt Sale Payment of A/P

Increase A/R Decrease Invty Invty increases Purchase Inventory Billing/Acct. Receivable Cash Receipts Cycle Purchase/Acct.Payable/ Cash Disbursements

Cycle Knowledge about the relationships between sales, accounts receivable, and cash receipts (inventory, purchases, accounts payable, and cash disbursements) can be used to decrease the possibility of errors and theft. Example Problem A customer calls and says that he received an invoice from your company and that he never purchased anything. Solution Establishing documentation procedures that tie recorded transactions to existing transactions.

The Sales Transactions Players Sales manager Accounts Receivable clerk Shipping Clerk Mailroom clerk Cashier General Ledger Clerk Sales and Cash Receipts

What role does each perform? Sales (approving the transaction) Sales Dept: From the Purchase Order, fill out the Charge Sale Invoice document, leaving blank the verified by space then give it to A/R. This is a Sales Order Header. Accts Receivable: Approve the transaction and complete the Sales Order. This will be an invoice when the items have been shipped. Send 2 copies of the invoice to Shipping (one is a packing slip). Send an approved copy back to Sales. Sales Dept:

Send the vendor acknowledgement back to the customer. Inform the customer of the sales order number for future correspondence, give them someone to contact and an estimated date. Sales (executing the transaction) Shipping: Fills the order, notes the quantity shipped and computes the extension and total sale. Sends a copy to the customer (as a packing slip). Fills in the BOL# and returns to A/R. Accts Receivable: Record the account receivable in the A/R subsidiary ledger

(This is like a file for this particular customer). Send a copy of the complete invoice to the G/L department. Send a copy of the complete invoice to the customer. Sales (recording the sale in the General Journal) G/L department (accounting) Record the invoice from Accounts Receivable. SALES Sales clerks receives a PO Prepares Sales Order Header

Forwards to Accounts Receivable for approval Prepare S/O Accounts Receivable A/R Checks the A/R subsidiary ledger Approves the transaction and annotates the SO header makin

it a Sales Order Returns Sales Order to sales clerk. A Send copies to shipping (one is Packing Slip) d e ov r pp

Shipping Sales A d e ov r pp SALES

Prepare vendor acknowledgement Send to customer Prepare V/A Customer SHIPPING d e ov r

p p A Fills the order, notes the quantity shipped and computes the extension and total sale. Sends a copy to the customer (as a packing slip). Fills in the BOL# and returns to A/R. Invoice Customer

A/R w/ BOL Invoice A/R Record the account receivable in the A/R subsidiary ledger (This is like a file for this particular customer). Send a copy of the complete invoice to the G/L department. Send a copy of the complete invoice

to the customer. Invoice Invoice Customer G/L G/L Invoice Record the invoice from

Accounts Receivable. Accts. Rec Sales XXX XXX Sales and Cash Receipts Sales and Cash Receipts Remember that we are focusing on the sales and cash receipts transactions. See Quiz to verify which ones apply to S & CR

It always helps to read ahead but it may also help to think ahead. Read flowcharts for understanding prior to transaction Think about the S & CR Universe Sales and Cash Receipts Universe Sale Y Cash

Receipt N Y Cash Sale Loan Account N Sale Product Return

Or ChargeOff

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