Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners - WordPress.com
Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners Jenna Guadagna and Yimy Rodrieguez Dr.DeNysschen Introduction to Dietetics Summer 2015 Nutritive vs. Nonnutritive Sweetener Nutritive Sweetener Carbohydrate Energy Natural, Processed, Added
Polyols Nonnutritive Sweetener Minimal or No Carbohydrate Content 7 Generally Regarded as Safe in the United States Added Sugars Sugars and Syrups 14.6% of adults energy in the U.S comes from added sugar Nutritive Sweeteners
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides Sugar Sugar Caloric Sweeteners Added Sugars Nutritive Sweeteners Recognized by the FDA Brown Sugar Malt Syrup Confectioners Powdered Sugar Raw Sugar Sucrose White Granulated Sugar
Corn Syrup Corn Syrup Solids High Fructose Corn Syrup Corn Based Dextrose Fruit Nectars Agave Nectar Honey Invert Sugar Honey Maple Syrup Pancake Syrup Other Nutritive Sweeteners
Cane Juice Evaporated Corn Sweetener Fruit Juice Concentrate Crystal Dextrose Glucose Liquid Fructose
Sugar Cane Juice Fruit Nectar High Fructose Corn Syrup Produced from Corn Syrup Enzymatic Processing to Increase Fructose Mixed With Glucose Baked Goods 42%
Beverages 55% Academy Evidence Analysis Library (EAL) Compared high fructose corn syrup with other nutritive sweeteners Association with obesity and metabolic or adverse effects within the body Fair amount of data Effects are similar to other nutritive sugars Polyols Sugar alcohols
Isomalt Why are they used? Absorbed slowly and incompletely Sugar free foods Academy Evidence Analysis Library (EAL) Compared sugar alcohols with other nutritive sweeteners Association with obesity and metabolic or adverse effects within the body
Limited data Moderate intake is tolerated 10-15grams per day Chronic Health Issues Added Sugars + Solid Fats + Excess Intake = Chronic Health Issues Inflammation Pre-diabetes Overweight
Type 2 Diabetes Obesity Cardiovascular Disease Main Contributors of Added Sugars in Our Diet #1 Soda Energy Drinks Sports Drinks #2
#3 Fruit Drinks #4 Grain-Based Desserts Dairy Desserts #5 Candy
Consumption of Sucrose, Glucose, and Fructose National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES Economic Research Service ERS Intake of Total Added Sugars by Different Population Groups Teenagers years of age 13 years of age 25% total energy Boys- 31.2% Girls 27.8% Men > Women African American and Mexican
American African American 32.3% Mexican American 39% Lower Socioeconomic Status = Higher Intake of Added Sugars Lower Income Lower Level of Education Ethnic Minority Groups Nutritive Sweeteners and Behavioral Issues Is there a negative influence between added sugars and the behavior
or cognition in children with behavioral issues? Evidence with refined sugars and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Outside research Behavioral issues are more connected with environmental factors outside of nutrition. Diets Removing additives Food Consumption Patterns of Added Sugars
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans DGA 16% Total Population National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)20052006 14.6% Total Population National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20072008 High Fructose Corn Syrup Change in Availability
Increased Decreased 1970-1999 2005 Why? Recommendations Institute of Medicine American Heart Association
World Health Organization Dietary Guidelines for Americans ChooseMyPlate MyFood-a-pedia Non Nutritive Sweeteners 17 Why do we produce and consume Nonnutritive sweeteners?
Economical Limits Caloric Intake Beneficial for Diabetes patients, as it better monitors carbohydrate intake 18 Approved by the FDA 7 NNS Saccharin- use in diet sodas, 300 times sweeter than sucrose Acesulfame K- from baked goods to ice cream, 200 times sweeter
Aspartame - beverages, degrades during heating,160-220 times sweeter Luo Han guo extract- tabletop sweetener, no ADI stablished, 150-300 sweeter Neotame- use in food processing, 7000-13000 sweeter Stevia- common in cereals, 250 times sweeter 19 Sucralose (splenda)- heat stable, general purpose, 600 times sweeter Nonnutritive Sweetener reviewed by organizations Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010
American Diabetes Association National Cancer Institute 20 Academy Evidence Analysis Library (EAL) reviewed In adults, does using foods or beverages with non nutritive sweetener in an energy-restricted or ad libitum diet affect energy balance (weight)? Conclusion Statement: Aspartame- Grade I=Good, good evidence that it does help with
weight management Saccharin- Grade III= Limited Sucralose- Grade III= Limited 21 EAL continued In adults, does using foods or beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners affect appetite or food intake? Conclusion Statement: Aspartame, Grade I=Good, there is good evidence that it doesn't affect it
Saccharin, Grade III= Limited Sucralose, Grade III= Limited 22 EAL continued What is the evidence from human subjects research that nonnutritive sweeteners consumption is associated with adverse effects in the general population? Conclusion Statement: Aspartame, Grade I=Good, good evidence that it doesn't cause
adverse effects Saccharin, Grade III=Limited Sucralose, Grade III= Limited 23 Outside Research According to Mattes and Popkin Nonnutritive sweeteners enhances palatability Increases acceptability of sugar free foods to increase their intake over more energy dense versions.
24 Overall point Dietitians should be familiar with the different types of nonnutritive sweeteners Important in diabetes education 25 The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Position of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as Individual health goals and personal preference.
References Briefel R. Reducing Calories and Added Sugars by Improving Children's Beverage Choices. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013-02-01;113:269-275. Chattopadhyay S, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R. Artificial sweeteners a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;51(4):611-621. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0571-1. Fitch, Cindy, and Kathryn S. Keim. "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 112.5 (2012): 739-58. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms R. DMattes - B. MPopkin - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Schab D.W., Trinh N.H.T. Do artificial food colors promote hyperactivity in children with hyperactive syndromes? A meta-analysis of double-blind placebo-controlled trials. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr.2004;25:423434. doi: 10.1097/00004703-200412000-00007. Welsh JA. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States1234. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2011-09-01;94:726-734. Woo HD. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nutrients. 2014-0401;6:1539-1553. 27
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