D N A S N S U N U NO O N RO P Nouns are the stuff in writing. In terms of writers craft, the well-chosen noun can be all the difference between bug and cockroach, or the writer saying stuff instead of a list of items that reveal something about a character or setting. Naming names gives the reader an exact image on which to focus. - Jeff Anderson NOUNS PEOPLE, PLACES, THINGS AND IDEAS Nouns are naming words - a noun names something -most nouns fall into four main groups: people, places, things, and ideas
PEOPLE PLACES THINGS IDEAS veterinarian Lake Mead bumblebee strength Dr. Robinson classroom collar honesty Americans kennel motorcycle
willingness leader Bunker Hill notebook obedience RECOGNIZING COMPOUND NOUNS A compound noun is one noun made by joining two or more words - they are written in three different ways: as single words, as hyphenated words, and as two or more separate words COMPOUND NOUNS SINGLE WORDS HYPHENATED WORDS SEPARATE WORDS crossbar by-product dinner jacket
firefighter right-hander pole vault thunderstorm middle-distance pen pal classroom mother-in-law chief justice USING COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS All nouns can be divided into two large groups: common nouns and proper nouns. A common noun names any one of a class of people, places, things or ideas. - common nouns are not capitalized A proper noun names a specific person, place, thing or idea. - proper nouns are always capitalized
COMMON NOUNS PROPER NOUNS inventor Alexander Graham Bell village Tarrytown story The Tell-Tale Heart organization American Red Cross idea Germ Theory of Disease PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word that take the place of a noun or group of words acting as a noun - they are used rather than repeating a noun again and again - pronouns make sentences clearer and more interesting WITH NOUNS:
Aunt Jenny was late because Aunt Jenny had waited for Aunt Jennys computer technician. WITH PRONOUNS: Aunt Jenny was late because she had waited for her computer technician. Sometimes a pronoun takes the place of a noun in the same sentence. EXAMPLES: My father opened his files first. pronoun Many people say exercise has helped them. pronoun PRONOUNS CONTINUED A pronoun can also take the place of a noun used in an earlier sentence. EXAMPLES: My father opened his e-mail first. He couldnt wait any longer. pronoun Students must take a science class. They can choose biology or ecology. pronoun A pronoun may take the place of an entire group of words. EXAMPLES: Trying to make the team is hard work. It takes hours of
practice every day. pronoun ANTECEDENTS OF PRONOUNS An antecedent is the noun (or group of words acting as a noun)to which a pronoun refers. EXAMPLES: The firefighters described how they did their jobs. antecedent pronoun pronoun Finally, the rescue worker reappeared. She seemed to be unharmed. antecedent pronoun How Kim was rescued is amazing. It is a story that will be told often. antedecent pronoun Although he was known as an expert software developer, Darryl enjoyed pronoun
selling computer. antecedent ANTECEDENTS OF PRONOUNS CONTINUED Some kinds of pronouns do not have any antecedent. EXAMPLES: Everyone knows what the truth is. indefinite pronoun Who will represent the class at the town-wide school meeting? interrogative pronoun The pronouns everyone and who do not have a specific antecedent because their meaning is clear without one. RECOGNIZING PERSONAL PRONOUNS The pronouns used most often are personal pronouns. Personal pronouns refer to (1) the person speaking or writing, (2) the person listening or reading, or (3) the topic (person, place, thing, or idea) being discussed or written about.
The first person pronouns I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, and ours refer to the person or persons speaking or writing. EXAMPLES: I like the new design. Please give us an example. RECOGNIZING PERSONAL PRONOUNS CONTINUED The second-person pronouns you, your, and yours refer to the person or persons spoken or written to. EXAMPLES: You will see the photo. Your friend is at the door. The third-person pronouns he, him, his, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, and theirs refer to the person, place or thing, or idea being spoken or written about. EXAMPLES: He wants to listen to the radio show. They wrote letters to the editor. RECOGNIZING PERSONAL PRONOUNS CONTINUED Some personal pronouns show possession. Although they can function as adjectives, they are still identified as personal pronouns because they take the place of possessive nouns. EXAMPLES: Marys town paper comes out weekly. possessive noun
PERSONAL PRONOUNS Her town paper comes out weekly. SINGULAR PLURAL First person I, me, my, mine we, us, our, ours Second person you, your, yours you, your, yours Third person he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its they, them,
their, theirs possessive pronoun DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS A demonstrative pronoun points to a specific person, place, or thing - there are two singular and two plural demonstrative pronouns DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS SINGULAR this that PLURAL these those This and these point to what is near the speaker or writer. That and those point to what is more distant. NEAR: This is the desk where I sit. These are my favorite books. FAR: Is that the cafeteria down the hall? Those are my sandwiches. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that is not specifically named. EXAMPLES: Everything is ready for the field trip. Everyone wants to see the medical center.
Anyone can learn to play tennis. Something fell out of the cabinet when I opened it. Indefinite pronouns can function as adjectives or the subject of a sentence. - if it functions as an adjective, it is called an indefinite adjective ADJECTIVE: Both students want to be nurses. SUBJECT: Both want to be nurses. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS CONTINUED A few indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending on their use in the sentence. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURA L SINGULAR or PLURAL another much both all
anybody neither few any anyone nobody many more anything no one others most each nothing several
none either one everybod other y everyone somebod y everythi ng someone little somethin g some
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