Non-Experimental Research = research in which the experimenter does not have complete control over the conditions of the study Researcher gives up some control in order to get the data correlational research From: http://www.venganza.org/about/open-letter/
Experimental Research Manipulation Assignment Non-Experimental Research Observation
Types of Non-Experimental Research Surveys Observational Research
Archival Research Case Studies Observational Research Naturalistic Observation Participant Observer Naturalistic Observation unobtrusive research
nonreactive research Types of evidence examined: Physical Trace Direct Observation Participant Observer Research Useful for secretive or otherwise isolated groups Approach to research is often hermeneutic
Undisguised vs. Disguised participation Problems Objectivity Reactivity Privacy and consent Key Features of Observational Research Careful record keeping
distinguishes naturalistic observation from casual (non-systematic) observation Coding Scheme is crucial (example: FACS) Using a variety of measures Safeguarding the privacy of participants Data Recording Methods in Observational Research
Field Notes for direct observation Be systematic use checklists, record in as much detail as possible Be selective sampling and restricting to only behaviors of interest Use recording devices if possible Content Analysis for textual and photographic materials
Content Analysis Manifest vs. Latent Content Coding manifest content is more objective, and therefore more reliable Manifest content may be less valid in some cases Checking for reliability: Have at least 2 raters work independently
Check for agreement, or interrater reliability Percent agreement Kappa Resolve disagreements between raters if possible Archival Research Using existing records or data Potential Problems:
You are at the mercy of whoever collected the data. (They may or may not ask what you need to know.) The records could be biased. Case Studies Studying a unique individual person, situation, or event Uses multiple sources of information
Often focused on a practical problem or pressing issue
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