ZERO-EMISSION ENERGY PLANTS Dr. Robert Bob Wright Senior

ZERO-EMISSION ENERGY PLANTS Dr. Robert Bob Wright Senior Program Manager Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Office of Fossil Energy U. S. Department of Energy Washington, DC The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference Global Energy Management Institute University of Houston Houston, Texas 18 November 2004 1 America Depends on Fossil Energy 2025 +39% 2002 pa) (1.5% Fossil fuels provide 87.2% of energy 98 Quads Renewable 6% Fossil fuels provide 85.6% of energy Renewable Nuclear 6% 8.3%

136 Quads Nuclear 6.3% Oil 39.0% Oil 40.3% Gas 23.6% Gas 23.9% Coal 22.7% Coal 23.3% AEO 2004: Table A1 WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 2 Contaminant Emissions Down 4 Index: 1970 = 1 U.S. Power Plants Coal Use 3

Electricity Generation 2 Natural Gas Use Nitrogen Oxides 1 0 1970 Sulfur Dioxide Particulate Matter 1980 Year 1990 2000 EPA, National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1999 (March 2001) DOE, EIA Annual Energy Review WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 3 CO2 Concentration On The Rise From ~280 ppm to 370 ppm over the last 100 years WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004

4 CO2 from Combustion in U. S. Tg CO2 Eq. 2,000 Natural Gas Petroleum Coal Relative Contribution by Fuel Type 1,500 Coal-Fired Power Plants Produce 1/3 of CO2 1,000 500 0 Residential Industrial Electric U.S. Commercial Transportation Territories Table 2-3, EPA 430-R-03-004, April 2003 Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2001

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 5 The Case for Hydrogen Energy Security Biomass Transportation Response DIVERSE DOMESTIC RESOURCES Hydro Wind Solar Industry Nuclear Oil Coal Natural Gas S e q u e s tr a tio n H2 Environment Power Generation

Response ZERO/NEAR ZERO GHG and other EMISSIONS WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 6 Why Hydrogen From Coal? U.S. U.S. reserves reserves are are huge huge Fossil Energy Reserves1 250 250 year year supply supply H H22 can can be be produced produced cleanly cleanly H H22 from from coal coal is is economical economical Carbon

Carbon capture capture and and storage storage addresses addresses climate climate change change Diversifies Diversifies the the source source of of H H22 Provides Provides the the bridge bridge to to production production of of H H22 from from renewable renewable sources sources and and nuclear nuclear Coal Quads Nat Gas

Oil 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 US ROW 1 -- Proved oil and gas reserves, and recoverable coal reserves WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 7 FutureGen Nearly $1 billion (U.S.) , 10-year demonstration project to create the worlds first coal-based, zero-emission electricity and hydrogen plant Test new technologies Nominal 275-MWe 1 million tonnes CO2 per year Sequester the CO2 Produce H2 WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004

8 Platform for Emerging Technologies Fuel Cells FutureGen Gasification with Cleanup and Separation H2 Production Optimized Turbines WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 Carbon Sequestration System Integration 9 Traditional IGCC Coal Coal Gasifier Sulfur Syngas H2 / CO

Gas Cleanup O2 Central Power Gas Turbine Combined Cycle O2 Plant WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 10 IGCC in FutureGen Sulfur Coal H2 / CO Coal Gasifier Shift H2 / CO2 O2 O2 Plant Gas H2 Cleanup

and Separation Central Power H2 Turbine Combined Cycle CO2 Transportation Fuel Cells IC Engine Geologic Sequestration WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 Distributed Power Fuel Cells 11 CO2 Storage WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 12 Geo-Sequestration Advantages May be only option that removes enough carbon to stabilize CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere

Only approach that doesnt require countries to overhaul their energy infrastructurescontinue to use fossil fuels Carbon Management Paths May prove to be the lowest cost carbon management option Switch to low- & no-carbon fuels Renewables, Nuclear, Natural Gas Increase energy efficiency Demand Side & Supply Side Sequester carbon Terrestrial Geologic WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 13 Worldwide Storage Capacity 200,000 Range of Potential Capacity Capacity (Gtc) 1,200

800 6.5 Gtc 400 0 Deep Ocean Deep Saline Formations Depleted Oil & Gas Reservoirs Coal Seams Terrestrial Annual World Emissions Storage Options: IEA Technical Review (TR4), March 23, 2004 / Carbon Capture & Sequestration Program @MITWorld Emissions: / DOE-EIA, International Energy Outlook 2003, Table A10 WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 14 Adapting to Climate Change Reference Case Reduction in

carbon intensity Emissions (environmental incentives) Creation of materially new energy sectors (economic growth incentives) Target 1990 2015 2040 2100 Chris Mottershead, British Petroleum WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 15 Stabilization Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of CO2 in 2050 requires a new zero emissions energy sector almost equal in size to the current primary Fossil Fuel Emissions (Gtc/yr) 14

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Stabilization Wedges 1 Wedge = 1 Gtc Continued Fossil Fuel Emissions 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 S. Pacala, R. Socolow, Presentation, May 4, 2004 WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 16 What is Scale of 1 Gtc Wedge? BUSINESS SECTOR 1 Gtc per YEAR WEDGE Fuel switching

1400 GW fueled by gas instead of coal Coal-fired plants w/ CCS 1400 500-MW(e) power plants 1-3 Geological sequestration 3500 Sleipners (1 MtCO2/yr) 1-3 Hydrogen fuel 1 billion H2 cars displace 30 mpg cars Efficiency improvements Carbon intensity [$GNP] drops 0.2% faster than in past Improve ICE efficiency 2 billion cars go from 25 mpg to 50 mpg 1 Solar PV displaces coal 1000 X current capacity, i.e., 5 Mha 1

Wind displaces coal 70 X current capacity 1 Nuclear displaces coal 700 1-GW(e) plants, i.e., 1.5 X current capacity Biofuel displaces petroleum 200 Mha growing at 7.5 tc/ha per year (= US agro land) 1 Re-forestation 700 Mha growing at 2 tc/ha per year 1 WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 WEDGES 1 1 1-3 1-3 17

Thank You R. Patrich of SaskPower We are moving into a carbon-managed world, not a carbon constrained world. Web sites www.fe.doe.gov www.netl.doe.gov www.netl.doe.gov/coalpower/sequestration Email addresses [email protected] [email protected] WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004 18

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