Rocks Section 1 Section 1: Rocks and the Rock Cycle Preview Key Ideas Three Major Types of Rock The Rock Cycle Properties of Rocks Rocks
Section 1 Key Ideas Identify the three major types of rock, and explain how each type forms. Summarize the steps in the rock cycle. Explain Bowens reaction series. Summarize the factors that affect the stability of rocks. Rocks Section 1
Three Major Types of Rock The material that makes up the solid parts of Earth is known as rock. Based on the processes that form and change the rocks of Earths crust, geologists classify rocks into three major types by the way the rocks form. Igneous rock forms when magma, or molten rock, cools and hardens. Rocks Section 1
Three Major Types of Rock, continued Sediments are rocks, mineral crystals, and organic matter that have been broken into fragments. Sedimentary rock forms when sediment deposits are compressed and cemented together. Metamorphic rock forms when existing rock is altered by certain forces and processes, such as tremendous pressure, extreme heat, or chemical processes. Rocks Section 1
The Rock Cycle Any of the three major types of rock can be changed into another of the three types. Geologic forces and processes cause rock to change from one type to another. rock cycle the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one form to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes Rocks The Rock Cycle, continued The diagram below shows the rock cycle.
Section 1 Rocks Section 1 Properties of Rocks All rock has physical and chemical properties that are determined by how and where the rock formed. The rate at which rock weathers and the way that rock breaks apart are determined by the chemical stability of the minerals in the rock.
Bowens Reaction Series Bowens reaction series the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point The pattern of mineral formation from magma depends on the chemical composition of the magma. Rocks Section 1 Properties of Rocks, continued
The diagram below shows Bowens reaction series. Rocks Section 1 Properties of Rocks, continued Reading Check Summarize Bowens reaction series. As magma cools and solidifies, minerals crystallize out of the magma in a specific order that depends on their melting points.
Rocks Section 1 Properties of Rocks, continued Chemical Stability of Minerals The rate at which mineral chemically breaks down is dependent on the chemical stability of the mineral. Chemical stability is a measure of the tendency of a chemical compound to maintain its original chemical composition rather than break down to form a different chemical. In general, the minerals that are most stable are
minerals that formed at the lowest temperatures, under conditions similar to those on Earths surface. Rocks Section 1 Properties of Rocks, continued Physical Stability of Rocks Rocks have natural zones of weakness that are determined by how and where the rocks form. When rock that formed under intense pressure is uplifted to Earths surface, decreased pressure allows the joints
or fractures to open. Once these weaknesses are exposed to air and water, the processes of chemical and mechanical weathering begin.
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