LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Path-Goal Theory

LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Path-Goal Theory

LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Path-Goal Theory Chapter 7 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Overview Path-Goal Theory Perspective Conditions of Leadership Motivation Leader Behaviors & Subordinate Characteristics Task Characteristics How Does the PGT Approach Work? Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

2 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description Definition Path-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals Emphasizes the relationship between the leaders style the characteristics of the subordinates the work setting Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

3 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description Perspective Goal - To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation Motivational Principles (based on Expectancy Theory) - Subordinates will be motivated if they believe: they are capable of performing their work that their efforts will result in a certain outcome that the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

4 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Challenge to Leader Use a Leadership Style that best meets subordinates motivational needs choose behaviors that complement or supplement what is missing in the work setting enhance goal attainment by providing information or rewards provide subordinates with the elements they

need to reach their goals Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 5 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Conditions of Leadership Motivation Leadership generates motivation when: It increases the number and kinds of payoffs subordinates receive from their work Makes the path to the goal clear and easy to travel through with coaching and direction Removes obstacles and roadblocks to attaining the goal

Makes the work itself more personally satisfying Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 6 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 7 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

8 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leader Behaviors Directive Leadership Leader who gives subordinates task instruction including: What is expected of them How task is to be done Timeline for task completion Clear standards of performance Clear rules & regulations Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

9 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leader Behaviors Supportive Leadership Leader who is friendly and approachable: Attending to well-being & human needs of subordinates Using supportive behavior to make work environment pleasant Treating subordinates as equals & giving them

respect for their status Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 10 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leader Behaviors Participative Leadership Leader who invites subordinates to share in the decision-making: Consults with subordinates Seeks their ideas & opinions Integrates their input into group/organizational decisions

Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 11 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leader Behaviors Achievement-Oriented Leadership Leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level possible: Establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates Seeks continuous improvement Demonstrates a high degree of confidence in

subordinates ability to establish & achieve challenging goals Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 12 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Subordinate Characteristics Strong need for affiliation Friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction Supportive Leadership Preference for Structure

Dogmatic & authoritarian Leadership provides psychological structure, task clarity, & greater sense of certainty in work setting Directive Leadership Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 13 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Subordinate Characteristics Desire for Control Internal locus of control Leadership that allows subordinates to feel in charge of their work & makes them an integral part of the decision-making process

Participative Leadership External locus of control Leadership that parallels subordinates feelings that outside forces control their circumstances Directive Leadership Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 14 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Subordinate Characteristics Perception of their own ability specific task As perception of ability and competence goes up, need for highly directive

leadership goes down Directive leadership may become redundant, possibly excessively controlling Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 15 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Task Characteristics Components Design of subordinates task Organizations formal authority system Primary work group of subordinates Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

16 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Task Characteristics Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement Unclear and ambiguous - Leader needs to provide structure Highly repetitive - Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation Weak formal authority - If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear

Nonsupportive/weak group norms - Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 17 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Task Characteristics Obstacles Anything in the work setting that gets in the way of subordinates They create excessive uncertainties, frustrations, or threats for subordinates

Leaders responsibility is to help subordinates by Removing the obstacles Helping subordinates around them Assisting with obstacles will increase Subordinates expectations to complete the task Their sense of job satisfaction Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 18 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION How Does the Path-Goal Theory Approach Work? Focus of Path-Goal Theory Strengths Criticisms Application

LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION How Does Path-Goal Theory Work? The leaders job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the way Leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to these The theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION

Path-Goal Theory Approach Focus Path-goal theory is a complex but also pragmatic approach Leaders should choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and their work Overall Scope Path-goal theory

provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 21 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Path-Goal Theory Matrix

Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 22 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Strengths Useful theoretical framework. Path-goal theory is a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance. Integrates motivation. Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership. Practical model. Path-goal theory provides a practical

model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates. Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 23 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION 24 Criticisms Interpreting the meaning of the theory can be confusing because it is so complex and incorporates so many different aspects of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement.

Empirical research studies have demonstrated only partial support for path-goal theory. It fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation. The path-goal theory approach treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate. Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Application PGT offers valuable insights that can be applied

in ongoing settings to improve ones leadership. Informs leaders about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement oriented. The principles of PGT can be employed by leaders at all organizational levels and for all types of tasks. Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 25

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