History of Floral Design Why is it important? To create arrangements with the feel of another time and place. To harmonize your arrangements with the time period of the room or building. HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF!!! Floral Design in Ancient Civilizations Egyptian Greek Roman
Byzantine Egyptian Floral Design Began in 2800 B.C. to 28 B.C. We discovered floral design through artifacts and wall paintings Used for decoration in Temples Banquet Tables Wreaths for
Simplistic, repetitious, and highly stylized Placed in spouted vases with no stem visible Set in regimented rows Around the edge of the vase (2 inches above the rim) Blossoms were flanked by leaves or buds on lower stems.
Egyptian Period 2800-28BC Containers Egyptians favored wide-mouthed containers Containers were often made from pottery, gold, slate, or polished alabaster Farrence -- Type of glazed earthenware from Italy that was often used in containers Egyptian Period: Design Characteristics Common types of designs were chaplets, wreaths, garlands
Designs were typically orderly with alternating patterns of flowers Dominant colors were red, yellow, and blue Egyptian Period: Flowers several flowers were considered sacred, symbolizing Egyptian Gods and Goddesses Acacia
Gladiolas Jasmine Lily Lupine Morning Glory Poppy Rose Lotus**
Flowers used in Egyptian Design -Acacia -Madonna -Roses -Narcissus -Water lilies -Jasmine -Violets
lilies -Poppies -Lotus blossom ( were considered sacred) JASMINE LOTUS GLADIOLAS LILY
Papyrus Figs Peaches Grapes Plums Greek Floral Design This Period Began 600B.C.46 B.C. The ancient Greeks were so
dedicated to beauty that their art heritage has lived through the ages and influences todays art. Herbs were frequently used with the flowers, and as garlands, and wreaths. They introduced the Horn of Plenty or Cornucopia. Greek Floral Designs
Greek designs expressed grace and simplicity Color was not important the flowers, fragrance, and symbolism associated with each flower were foremost importance Often symbolic of a god or hero Greek Period
600-146 BC Containers Flower petals were often scattered on the ground during ceremonies Design types often used were wreaths and garlands worn during special occasions. Presented as awards to athletes, statesmen and soldiers. The cornucopia was first introduced during this era. It was filled with fruits and vegetables and placed in an upright position rather than on its side as done today. Greek Period: Flowers
Crocus Daisy Honeysuckle CROCUS HONEYSUCKLE DAISY Roses Flowers Used in Greek Designs Hyacinths Honeysuckle
Violets Lilies Tulips Larkspur Marigolds Greek Period: Foliage & Fruit Oak Herbs Ivy
Olive Laurel Acorns Berries Grapes Roman Floral Design 28 -B.C.-325 A. D. The Romans continued with the customs of the Greeks. Garlands, wreaths and crowns were more elaborate than those of the Greeks. Crowns and
garlands were tapered. Flowers were sometimes arranged in baskets and cornucopias.. Roman Period 28 BC-325 AD continued the customs of the Greeks
Often used heavy & elaborate wreaths Used fragrant flowers with bright colors First use of natural bouquets arrangements and usage became more elaborate Roman Floral Design Dies Rosationis After a person dies the family would gather at a rose bedecked grave and lay more roses in remembrance of that person. Sub Rosa - Roman
custom of hanging a wreath of white roses from the ceiling, and all things said beneath the wreath was to be kept a secret. Poppy Flowers Used in Roman Design Roses Amaranths
Laurel Byzantine Floral Design 320-600 AD Continued Roman designs Elaborate containers had nearly pointed bases. Used symmetrical tree-like compositions
Byzantine Floral Design Changed construction of garlands to be narrow bands of flowers or fruit alternated with foliage Formal conical designs with clusters of blossoms at regular intervals Floral Designs in European
Periods Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque French English-Georgian Victorian Middle Ages Floral Design (476-1400 AD) Flowers arranged in vases Symmetrical groups in Chinese flasks
show Chinese influence. Little known about floral designs of this period Information found in Persian art, rugs, and tapestries. Renaissance Floral Design Renaissance period saw a rebirth of many interests,
particularly in the arts. The Renaissance began in Italy but quickly spread to all of Europe. The Renaissance style was greatly influenced by the Byzantine, Greek, and Roman periods. Renaissance Floral Design Stems were covered
creating a massed, symmetrically stiff arrangement. In this era, the Christmas Wreath became popular Fruits, blossoms and leaves were woven into garlands to decorate walls and vaulted ceilings Petals were piled into baskets to strew on floors and streets or to float down from balconies into rooms below.
Renaissance 1400-1600 AD Period in Europe after Middle Ages Paintings from this period often show vases of flowers because flowers had great symbolism ex: The rose symbolized sacred or profane love ex: A white lily symbolized chastity and fertility Renaissance: Design Styles Single white lily placed in a jug is typical Flowers arranged in vases so that only blossoms were visible Massed, symmetrically stiff, compact
arrangements common designs were large, tall, pyramidal, and symmetrically balanced Bright colors and forms of flowers were used as focus Renaissance: Flowers Lily
Anemone Campanula Lily of the Valley Carnations Marigold Iris Narcissus Poppy Pansy Rose Violets ANEMONE
CAMPANULA Lily of the Valley CARNATIONS Flowers used in Roses Ivy Olive Renaissance Design Branches Lily of the
Valley Laurel Dianthus Lilies Daisies Violets Primroses Renaissance: Foliage
Laurel Boxwood Cones Myrtle Fruit Olive Ivy Vegetables Baroque and Flemish Style Period (1600-1775 AD)
Classical Renaissance style gave way to the lavish Baroque style Symmetrical oval shaped designs Hogarthian curve or S-Curve developed this period Baroque Period 1600-1775 AD
Era following the Renaissance in Europe Art is no longer just for the church or nobility, it is now accessible to the middle class.Paintings show arrangements in everyday settings Many interiors were overdecorated and gaudy Designs became more creative and expressive asymmetrical curves in the shape of a crescent or an s were adopted later Baroque Period: Containers Massive and sturdy Metal and stone urns Chinese and Japanese vases, bowls, and flasks
Baroque and Flemish Style Period Styles were evoked by the works of Michelangelo in Italy, but these were adopted by designers in Holland and Belgium. Large containers held flamboyant arrangements containing many
different kinds of flowers. Baroque Period: Flowers Marigolds Carnations Cyclamen Roses
Foxglove Sunflowers Iris Snowball Larkspur Tulips Lilies Flowers Used in the Baroque and Flemish Style Era Iris Marigold Lily
Leaves of flowers Coleusnests Birds Olive Shells Bold leaves Insects Nuts, berries Floral Design in French Period All of these design periods fall under
one Category : French Baroque French Rococo (18th Century) Louis XVI (Late 18th Century) Empire Period (1804-1814) French Period (17th & 18th century France) Also known as the Grand Era Associated with the courtly life Emphasis was on classic design,
refinement, and elegance Designs were often fan shaped and massed French The topiary was Baroque introduced during this period. Symmetrical designs with no focal point. Floral designs were informal, fragile, and delicate. French Rococo (18th Century)
Designs more formal than those of the Baroque period, predominantly arc and crescentshaped, delicate and airy. Louis XVI (Late 18th Century) Delicate, cool colors before the French revolution, and the revival of the Classical Period
following the French revolution. Empire Period (1804-1814) Military symbolism was often used in arrangements, using emblems and figures associated with the emperor. Most of the designs were simple and
triangular in shape. French Period: Containers Elegant and ornate Goblets and vases made of glass, ceramic, or porcelain Classic urns French Period: Flowers & Foliage
Lilacs English Georgian Period (1714-1760) The 15th and 16th Century collective fortresses of England gave way to smaller houses, into which flowers were brought, more for their fragrance than their beauty. Arrangements during the first half of this period consisted of flowers simply crammed into sturdy
containers, with little or no concern for design. Some of the containers of the period were made specifically to hold flowers, with holes or openings to maintain the stems at particular angles. English-Georgian Period 1714 1760 AD Named for English Kings George I, II, & III Fragrance was very important in flower selection because it was thought to rid disease English created the nosegay to safeguard from illness
Flowers became part of fashion in hair, around necks, and in dcolletage Arrangements were formal & symmetrical & often triangular Often used bough pots English-Georgian: Containers Wedgwood Posy-holder vases
Urns made of pewter, sliver, or ceramics Ceramic wall pockets Enclosed bricks English-Georgian: Flowers Used the same as the Baroque period but also included: Passion Flower Clover Phlox Geraniums Snowdrop Hibiscus Veronica
Victorian Era 18201901 The Victorian era named for Queen Victoria, marked a period of floral design, in which we often see elaborate and full designs. Upper-class members of society showed their wealth with large, excessive, opulent and often overdone flower
arrangements. Victorian Era This era was the first attempt to establish rules for floral arranging Arrangements were created weekly by cultured ladies and their daughters in the home. This was also the time when tussie-mussie bouquets and nosegay bouquets made their
mark in society. Proper women of Victorian society carried these bouquets at most social gatherings. Victorian Era Victorian style arrangements are typically round or oval in form. Flowers are typically kept to a lower height, Strong color contrasts and flowers with brilliant hues were preferred
Lots of foliage is associated with Victorian style arrangements. Fruit may be added to the arrangement also, mainly because the flowers are cut from the garden that are being used. Victorian Era Language of Victorians knew the language Flowers of flowers and carefully selected their arrangements or single flowers according to the message they wanted to
convey to the recipient. A gift of a bouquet of chrysanthemums meant love; a red carnation meant that feelings werent mutual and lavender meant luck or devotion Victorian Era: Flowers
Flowers Used in the Victorian Era Roses Tulips Carnations Lilies Daisies Peonies Fruit Victorian Era: Foliage & Accessories Ferns Grasses Dried Flowers
Figurines Stuffed birds, butterflies Victorian greeting cards Oriental Influence in Floral Design Began in India where Buddhist priests scattered branches and stem on altar or placed them in pottery urns. Modified by the Chinese during the first century A.D. Oriental influence placed emphasis on the
individual form, texture, and color of plant material Chinese vs. Japanese Style Chinese style is less stylized Japanese style is very formal and follows strict rules of construction Japanese designs are characterized by minimum use of plant material and careful placement of branches and flowers. Each placement and angle has meaning. Both use arrangements that depict how things are in nature natural growth patters, groomed plants/pruned to perfection (bonsai)
American Styles of Floral Design Early American Colonial Neoclassic American Victorian Early American (Colonial) Period (1620-1720) The early colonists generally produced plants for food or for their medicinal properties. What little time they had for arranging flowers was spent making simple arrangements to adorn their
very modest homes. Flowers were used more in the Central and Southern Colonial areas. Most of the arrangements they made were copied from the English Georgian and French Empire periods. Arrangements were made in simple mass forms using numerous colors. Colonial Williamsburg Floral (1740-1780) Design Colonial Williamsburg is renowned for its colorful arrangements in finger vase
and flower bricks. The English and European roots particularly in the Georgian and French designs became more symmetrical and sophisticated. Fan and Triangular-shaped flower arrangements where lightly grouped at the top, sometimes 11/2 to three times the height of their containers. Lilies
Flowers Used in Colonial Williamsburg Design Anemones Roses Sunflowers Cockscomb Strawflower Violets Marigolds Daisies
Snapdragons Ornamental grasses American Period Floral Design (1780-1820) The Neoclassic and Empire styles which had been evolving in Europe, especially the delicate French style, had a great influence on the styles used in
late colonial America at this time. In these types of arrangements, masses of mixed bouquets were used less often, and the charm of American Victorian Period (1800-1920) The Victorian period in England began to spill over to the newlydeclared United States. Ornate containers of many
different kinds of materials were filled to overflowing, using cool colors and an abundance of white. Arrangements tended to be made in rich purples, magentas, and dark blues. and the TuzzyMuzzy was popular, especially in the deep South. Modern Styles of Floral Design Art Nouveau Art Deco Free Form Expression Geometric Mass Design
Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Art Based on Nouveau curvilinear lines and often patterned after nature in the shape of plants/ flowers Containers were carving and
asymmetrical Art Nouveau Period: 1890 1910 Style was based on curvilinear lines and often patterned after nature in the shape of plants or flowers Containers were curving and asymmetrical Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Art Deco Influenced by ancient Egyptian, Jazz age, and
the industrial age. Characterized by strong geometric lines and patterns The style reemerged in the 1960s Corsages became popular in this time period. Art Deco Period: 1920s & 30s Blending of influences including ancient Egyptian, Jazz age, and industrial age Characterized by strong geometric lines and patterns
The style reemerged in the 1960s Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Free Form Expression Arrangements became more expressive with feeling or movement and freedom Textural differences between design materials were
emphasized Free Form Expression: 1950s Arrangements were more expressive with feeling of movement and freedom Textural differences between design materials were emphasized Modern Period (Contemporary) Floral Design Geometric Mass Design Tight, geometric bouquets were common
Arrangements combined mass and line into stiff patterns Compote containers were commonly used. Geometric Mass Design: 1960s & 70s Tight, geometric bouquets were common Arrangements combined mass and line into stiff patterns Compote containers were commonly used
Review What are some types of flowers and foliage common to all periods of floral design? Why is it important to study the history of floral design? What are some reasons for changing design styles across time? How did European traditions influence American design?
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