# Neutralization of an acid or base. Neutralization of an acid or base. Mixing acids and bases ~creates water H3O+ + OH- 2 H2O this is called neutralizing the solution a neutralized solution is no longer dangerous. The point where neutralization is complete is called the equivalence point

Salts ~the byproduct of an acid and a base. NaOH + HCl H2O + NaCl (base) (acid) (water) (salt) there are several more than just table salt. HNO3 + NH4OH H2O + NH4NO3 Acid Base

water salt Gases can be created this depends on the reactants (not all will) sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) will pretty much always release a gas Salt NaHCO3 + H2SO4 H2O + NaHSO4Gas +

CO2 Titration ~mixing an acid and base perfectly to make a neutral solution. You normally need some kind of indicator for this. Phenolphthalein- when in solution turns red if basic and is clear if acidic. You can also use a pH probe

Graph of titration pH equivalence point Volume strong base added Using math To neutralize a solution you will need to add an equal amount of H3O+ / OH- to what was already present.

so that mol H3O+ = mol OHThis is used if and only if you are at the equivalence point (completely neutral solution)! Problem If 94 mL of 4.0 M NaOH neutralizes 6.0 L of an unknown strong acid, what was the H3O+concentration of the unknown? 4 M NaOH x .094 L = .376 mol NaOH .376 mol H3O+/ 6.0 L = .063 M

H3O+ Another problem If 127 mL of 2.0 M NaOH neutralizes 4.1 L of an unknown acid, what is the initial concentration of the acid? 2.0M(.127 L) = .254 mol NaOH =.254 mol OH- = .254 mol H3O+ 4.1 L =.062 M Strong acids and bases

The strong acids and bases completely dissociate in water. Most acids or bases will only react to a certain extent Strong acids/bases make the most amount of hydronium or hydroxide that they possibly can. Strong acids Acid formul Acid Formula

a HCl Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Hydrochlori c acid Hydrobromi HBr c acid Hydriodic HI acid Nitric Acid

HNO3 Perchloric Acid HClO4 Strong these Bases make a lightning bolt on the periodic table!

Name Sodium Hydroxid e Potassiu m Hydroxid e All of group 1 + OH Formula

NaOH KOH Name Formula Calcium Ca(OH)2 Hydroxid e Strontium Sr(OH)2 Hydroxid e

But these Barium are rarely Hydroxid used. e Ba(OH)2 Danger!!! Strong and Weak acids and bases do NOT necessarily tell you how dangerous they are. Concentration is the most important factor for determining danger.

Ammonia is a weak base, if it is highly concentrated it can burn you. Dilute hydrochloric acid (less than 1 M) is not particularly dangerous What is water Water is either an acid or base depending on the situation. Anything that is either an acid or a base is called amphoteric. Several things are amphoteric, like parts of you.

Donating Protons Hydrochloric acid (HCl) can donate 1 proton, so it is called a monoprotic acid. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) can donate 2 protons, so it is called a diprotic acid. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) can donate 3 protons, so it is called a triprotic acid.