Neolithic Revolution - Amphitheater Public Schools

Neolithic Revolution Period in early history that marked the end of the Ice Age.

People stopped being nomadic and started farming and developing civilizations.

Hammurabis Code Set of laws used in Mesopotamia that were

based off the concept an eye for an eye Caste System

A way to keep order in society (hierarchy) Used in Indus River Valley and

became the basis for Hinduism Based on concepts of reincarnation and karma

China This civilization was the most isolated, but eventually became

connected to other empires through the Silk Road. Sparta

A war-like society that focused on military achievements and rule by

an oligarchy Persian Wars

A series of wars between the Greek city-states and the empire of Xerxes I. Although the Greeks lost a lot of

men, it led to the unity of Greece. Hellenistic

The combination of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures. Started by Alexander the Great

Julius Caesar leader of the Roman Republic who restored public works,

gave jobs to the poor and modified the Roman calendar Quran

Sacred text of Islam Byzantine

The empire that practiced Eastern Orthodox Christianity They combined with the Holy

Roman Empire to fight for Christianity during the Crusades Feudalism

A system of government based on land ownership Each level contributed to

society mutual aide was key!!! Aztec

The fall of this empire happened after the arrival of the Spanish (specifically,

Cortes) Jerusalem

Considered the Holy Land by both Christians and Muslims The Crusades was fought over control of this city

Joan of Arc A main reason for the

French victory in the Hundred Years War was because of their leadership and strategies

The Catholic Church Source of all political and

religious power during the Middle Ages Their power will eventually decline during the

Reformation period Inquisition

The Catholic Church used this to torture/interrogate heretics

Classicism Rediscovery of Greek

and Roman ideas during the Renaissance Humanism

Renaissance value that emphasized the dignity and worth of the individual

Secular Renaissance value that

focused on worldly, rather than religious, ideas Separation of Church and State

Machiavelli Renaissance author who advised kings on how to rule

In his book, he argued it was better for leaders to be feared than loved

Printing Press Improved literacy and education during the

Renaissance Led to the spread of Enlightenment and Reformation ideas

95 Theses Martin Luthers published list

of complaints against the church, included abuses of power and use of indulgences

Anglican A form of Protestantism that allowed the monarch

to be head of the church Catholic Reformation

The Catholic Church created this in order to compete with Protestants increasing popularity Declared an end to indulgences,

but increased the inquisition and censorship European Exploration

Caused by the quest for land, resources, and people to convert to Christianity

Triangular Trade Allowed Europeans to increase

their own wealth and influence Started the trade of goods, disease, slaves, and animals between Africa, Europe, and the

Americas Heliocentric Theory

New scientific belief that stated the sun was the center of the universe Directly conflicted with church

teachings Scientific Revolution

Led to the creation of the Scientific Method, Newtons Laws of Gravity, and advanced technology

Absolute Monarchy Type of government that granted the

exclusive right to rule to the king/queen Rule was supported by the idea of divine right

During the Renaissance, it was used by France (Louis XIV), Russia (Peter the Great), England (Elizabeth I), and Spain (Phillip II)

Enlightenment Period of history where people

began to use reason and logic to question leadership; inspired people to challenge authority

Montesquieu Enlightenment philosopher

that advocated the separation of the government into multiple branches in order to spread power

John Locke Enlightenment philosopher that

advocated inalienable rights Said that people had the right to change the government if their inalienable rights were abused

Rousseau Enlightenment philosopher that

believed people were naturally good; therefore, they should be free and have a say in the government

Florence City in Italy that was the

birthplace of the Renaissance Buddhism

Technically considered a philosophy, started by Siddhartha Gautama in the Indus River Valley.

Beliefs include reincarnation, karma, meditation, and dieting Judaism

Founded by Abraham (prophet) Uses the Torah as their sacred text

First major monotheistic religion

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