Native Cultures Outline

Native Cultures Outline

Native Cultures Outline Lecture I Elements of Culture The Cultural Ecological Paradigm Culture is Mans extrasomatic means of adaptation White 1951 Culture is shared, learned, & integrated Culture is influenced by environment Subsistence Strategies Hunting and Gathering (Foraging)

Relies on natural plants and animals in environment Small group size (20-50) Low population density (1/50 sq miles to 5/1 sq mile) Politically simple Bands or tribes, almost always egalitarian High mobility, usually seasonal Housing tipis, wigwams, wickiups Low amounts of wealth

Baskets, bladders, skins (parfleches) Lack of food storage May be technologically simple or surprisingly complex Subsistence Strategies Pastoralism Relies on domesticated animals and sometimes crops

Medium group size (up to several hundred) Low to medium population density Politically more complex Tribes or Chiefdoms, but generally egalitarian High mobility, often seasonal Housing like yurts or tipis, but can be semi-permanent Higher amounts of wealth due to draft animals Products from animal parts common Lack of food storage on the hoof May be technologically simple or surprisingly complex) Not seen in North America

Ducks, Turkeys, Dogs, Cavies, Llamas only domesticates Subsistence Strategies Horticulture Relies on simple cultigens, usually local in origin Medium group size (several hundred people) Medium to high population density (50/1sq mile & up) Politically and socially complex

Tribes and Chiefdoms, but generally egalitarian High kin importance Sedentary Housing Longhouses, Pueblos, Daub and Wattle Higher amounts of wealth and status goods Pottery, farming and processing tools Pottery, baskets, or boxes for food storage Often technologically complex in arts and subsistence items Subsistence Strategies

Agriculture Relies on more developed, often imported, cultigens High group size (hundreds to thousands of people) High population density (500/1sq mile & up) Politically and socially complex Chiefdoms and States, always stratified High kin importance and non-kin rulership

Sedentary Housing Longhouses, Pueblos, Daub and Wattle, Earth Lodges Higher amounts of wealth and status goods Pottery, farming and processing tools Pottery, baskets, or boxes for food storage Often technologically complex in arts and subsistence items Monumental Architecture, Sciences, Writing, Public Works Religious Beliefs What is Religion? A set of rituals, rationalized by myth, that mobilizes supernatural powers

Ritual Patterns of behavior and timing with religious purpose Myth Sacred narrative with supernatural actors Occurred long ago Tells how things came to be More on Religion Functionalist Explanations Psychological Social Cognitive

Types of Religious Belief Animism (supernatural spirits) Animatism (Impersonal force) Magic (pseudoscience) Witchcraft (accidental? influence of Force) Religious Practitioners

Shamans Priests Medicine Men Sorcerers Religious Rituals Rites of Passage Puberty Ceremonies Vision Quests Rites of Intensification Funerals Weddings

Revitalization Movements Ghost Dance and Wovoka Longhouse Religion and Handsome Lake

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