Native American Unit Pre-1620 Native Americans Essential Questions What images or ideas come to mind when you think of Native Americans? What exists in our world or everyday lives
today that has Native American Influences? Historical Context Historical contextthe social conditions that influence the creation of a work Characteristics of Literature Supernatural forces--Spiritual
imagery Appreciation of nature and creation Conflict Teaches a lesson Repetition Performance; oral tradition Types of Literature Oral stories Myths Sacred songs
Trickster tales Prayers poems Time Line 2000-1000 B.C. (3000-4000 years ago) Maize began to be cultivated in the southwest leading to an agricultural economy A.D. 500Native Americans often used currency called
waupumpeag along with bartering for goods 800- Mound Builder culture developed along the Mississippi River 1000- The Anasazi in the southwest built and lived in villages 1492- Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas 1607- First permanent English Colony set up in Jamestown 1619- First Africans arrive in the New World as indentured servants Native
Ameican Unit Pre1620 Here we present an image of Lucille, a Young Native American Girl. It was taken in 1907 by Edward S. Curtis. Maize (corn)
Maize was a staple of the Native American diet. A Hopi Bride had to spend four days grinding corn for her betrothed's family in order to prove her worth.
Wampumpeag Iroquois wampum belt: New York or Eastern Canada Mound Builder culture (c. 800) Etowah Indian Mound at the
Ocmulgee State Park in Macon, Georgia Anasazi cliff dwellings (c.1000) The Anasazi built elaborate dwellings in the sides of cliffs.
This may have been for defensive purposes. The community dwellings were abandoned in the late 1300s. Christopher Columbus
landed in the Bahamas in 1492 Christopher Columbus thought he was in India so he named the Native Americans Indians
Jamestown, Virginia 1607 Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in North America. The Powhatan
Indian taught the colonists how to plant corn and tobacco, saving the colonists from starvation Indentured Servents (c. 1679) In 1619, 20
Africans were brought to Jamestown on a Dutch ship as Twenty African people brought to Jamestown, Virginia on a Dutch ship Indentured Servants. This and sold as indentured servants. was the start of slavery that lasted nearly 200
years. In Harmony with Nature Native American Traditions The People The Native Americans did not think of themselves as living in a single nation- rather they thought of themselves as distinct groups. Original native peoples belonged to over 200 groups
that spoke more than 500 languages. They called themselves names such as Anishinabe, Dine, and Lakota- each meaning The People. Their ways of life were dictated by their natural surroundings and varied greatly. They had complex religious beliefs, sophisticated political systems, and strong social values. Definitions Please copy down the definition
Literary Terms to Know Myth Cause and effect Repetition Incremental Repetition Imagery Folk tales
Setting Internal conflict External conflict Inference Symbol Trickster tale Folktale A folk tale is a short, simple story that is handed down, usually by word of mouth,
from generation to generation. Folk tales include legends, fairy tales, myths, and fables. Folk tales often teach family obligations or societal values. Coyote and the Buffalo is an Okanogan folk tale and the the Indian and the Hundred Cows is a Hispanic folk tale. Some other popular examples: Robin Hood, Cinderella, Arabian Nights (Aladdin) Myth
Myth-a traditional story, passed down through generations, that explains why the world is the way it is. A myth is a form of the folktale Myths are essentially religious, because they present supernatural events and beings and articulate the values and beliefs of a cultural group. Some popular myths are also found in other cultures: Greek myths about the gods (Zeus), Egyptian myths (Sun god Ra),
Chinese Myths about animals and the use of an animal (the tiger). 4 Essential Functions of a Myth 1. To instill a sense of awe toward the mystery of the universe. (Wow! thats how the stars got there) 2. To explain the workings of the natural
world. (thats why the ocean has tides, there are stars in the night sky and the rain falls from the sky) 3. To support and validate social customs. (thats why there is a warrior ritual) 4. To guide people through the trials of life. (that is why we act the way we do or we should act in a certain way)
Trickster Tale A trickster tale is a folk tale about an animal or person who engages in trickery, violence, and magic. Neither all good nor all bad, a trickster may be foolish yet clever, greedy yet helpful, immoral yet moral. Coyote and the Buffalo and the Fox and the Coyote and Whale are both trickster tales. Cause and Effect When events have a causeand-effect relationship,
one (the cause) directly brings about the other (the effect). In the Iroquois myth, the actions of supernatural beings cause the present features of the world to exist. For example: (cause) the engines died on the airplane (effect) the plane Repetition
Repetition is the recurrence of words, phrases, or lines For example the first line of Song of the Sky Loom is the same as the last line. Think of the music lyrics you might listen to how words or phrases are repeated throughout a song or Dr. Seuss books as in the instance of Green Eggs and Ham: it
keeps repeating Sam I Am Incremental Repetition The structure of a line or stanza is repeated a certain number of times, with a slight variation in wording each time. Song of the Sky Loom May the warp be the white light of morning, May the weft be the red light of evening, May the fringes be the falling rain, May the border be the standing rainbow
Imagery The descriptive words and phrases that a writer uses to re-create sensory experiences are called imagery. Keep in mind anything you can imagine (while reading the words in a text) that appeals to your sight, smell, sound, taste or touch is a direct a part of the
imagery the author is trying to convey to you the reader. Setting The setting of a literary work refers to the time and place in which the action occurs. A story can be set in an imaginary place, such as an enchanted castle, or a real place such as New York City or Plymouth, Massachusetts. The time can be the past, the present, or the future.
Conflict A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces that is the basis of a storys plot. Man vs. Society Man vs. Man Man vs. Self External Conflict This conflict puts a character against nature, society, or another character.
Man vs. Nature The Pilgrims arrived in the new world in the middle of winter without food or shelter. Man vs. Man The Pilgrims and the Indians were afraid of each other and fought against each other Man vs. Society The Pilgrims left England and separated from
the church of England so they could worship the way they wanted to. Internal Conflict A conflict between opposing forces within a character. Man vs. Self For example: Metacomet s mind was troubled because he wanted to keep his native ways and when other members of his tribe moved into the settlements and started wearing the
clothes of the settlers he would not. Inference A logical guess based on evidence. For example the character in this picture could be described as a great warrior, and a magnificent leader.
You can infer that he was admired by his tribe. What can we infer from this picture? Symbol A symbol is a person, place, or object that has a concrete meaning in itself and also stands for
something beyond itself, such as an idea or feeling. What does this symbol mean?
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