Morphology of Range Plants - WordPress.com

Morphology of Range Plants - WordPress.com

Wildlife & Livestock Interactions Kevin Hurley R A N G E LA N D PR I N C IP L ES ( R E M 1 51 ) Colin Braley Livestock & Wildlife --- Theres a Plan https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=8&v=j-Q-TnCLLcg Managing Livestock & Wildlife Together Rangeland is managed by Multiple Use Principles Often mandated by law on public lands

Desirable on most lands But. You cant please all the critters all the time Management for one species will compromise others Focus on ecosystem management Umbrella Species? http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.gov/ Interactions Negative Positive It Depends J. Peterson

K. Launchbaugh K. Launchbaugh Connor White J. Olness K. Launchbaugh K. Launchbaugh Animal Relationships Type of Interaction

Effect on species A Effect on species B Example Mutualism + + Cattle Egrets & Bison Neutralism

0 0 Mason Bees & Pronghorn Competition 0 - Coyotes & Wolves Antagonism

+ + Amensalism 0 - Domestic Sheep & Bighorn Sheep Commensalism Ravens & Wolves Ticks & Elk

Domestic sheep and Bighorn sheep ? Debi Lander Joshua Miller Competition? Two species in same are using same resource often assumed COMEPTITION But, Competition only occurs if: Both species are using the same resource NPS.gov e.g., food or space

The resource is in short supply At least one species loses fitness because of the interaction e.g., lose weight, loss of fertile, reduced health Connor White Livestock Wildlife: Impacts Potential Positive Proper management Improve forage quality for wildlife Manage habitat and cover for wildlife Maintain water quality NRCS photo

Increased wildlife populations Some species well adapted to ranching UDSA-USFS Land of Contrasts: Ranchings Commitment to Wildlife http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4wwCqrsj8c Livestock Wildlife: Impacts Potential Positive Improved Forages

Higher quality grasses Energy-rich seeds Forbs Insect Cover Reduce cover Pronghorn Prairie dogs Birds of Brey Travel corridors D. Clark - BLM Livestock Wildlife:

Impacts Potential Positive Improved Habitat Grazing patchy, mosaic pattern Create patchy habitat with high structural diversity. Open up dense vegetation canopies Feeding, nesting, and hiding sites Encouraged establishment of shrubs Selective grazing

Create travel corridors Remove rank grass Stimulate browse production by reducing grass biomass Use livestock to manage weeds & fire risk NRCS photo nrcs.usda.gov Livestock Wildlife: Impacts Potential Negative Improper grazing can:

Reduced nest sites for upland game & waterfowl Trample nests Decrease water quality Disturb big game during fawning or calving Reduce cover to hide from predators Attract predators and parasites Transmit disease http://www.fws.gov Effects of Ranches on Wildlife Dont forget livestock grazing comes with human activities and structures as part of ranching. Some are positive, some are negative: Water Fences Large blocks of land

Weed control Disturbance nrcs.usda.gov Gary Kramer (nrcs.usda.gov) SS Cattle Company in Idaho http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jXUd43QdMR4 Interactions Negative Positive It Depends

J. Peterson K. Launchbaugh Species of livestock & wildlife J. Olness K. Launchbaugh Type of plants Topography Cover attributes Skill of manager K. Launchbaugh Connor White K. Launchbaugh

Wildlife & Livestock Interactions Kevin Hurley R A N G E LA N D PR I N C IP L ES ( R E M 1 51 ) Colin Braley

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