MODULE 6: SEQUENCING FOR IMPLEMENTATION Transit Oriented Development at a Corridor Scale Module Objective and Outline Objective: Understand the series and order of steps to undertake the planning and implementation of a TOD corridor project, including which steps should happen concurrently by different stakeholders Outline: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Regional master planning Project consultation/preparation choosing a corridor Transit infrastructure & operational design Financing gap analysis & proposed business model Detailed physical design & strategy Land assembly & integration
Implementation & coordination TOD Corridor Planning & Implementation: An Idealized Overview 1 5 2 3 6 4 7 But in the real world, many of these steps must happen concurrently to ensure a good end-result and timely implementation TOD Implementation & Coordination
Key Players & Roles in Public/Private Sectors for TOD Planning & Implementation Transit Development: Transport planners who forecast and plan infrastructure and transit services for expected travel demand, and transport engineers who deliver the infrastructure Urban Development: Urban planners who coordinate zoning and the overall vision for the city and region Government (Public-sector) Economic Development: Economic development officials who promote the city and region to businesses and coordinate incentives Real-estate developers who conceptualize, finance, and construct new buildings and building complexes Business / Private-sector Local businesses who locate within in a city based on accessibility to target market and other amenities
Concurrent Actions & Key Decisions cin n ina n F n id y on catio o n n ubs o Lo o i i s s ci or ci ss-S e De rrid D Cro o C
& g & s g c n si gisti a Ph Lo n n s o atio n t o isi en c De plem Im Transit Infrastructure Construction & Operations/Network Design Pre-consultation,
Planning, and Strategy Development Land Use Strategy, Urban & Public Space Design, & Zoning/Regulation of Buildings Economic Strategy & Consultation with Real-estate Developers on Land Assembly & Phasing Each Role Is Needed at a Different Stage of TOD Planning & Implementation Finalize cost estimates for transit infra Operations plan for transport integration Refine station designs for transfers & NMT
Finalize transit service changes for integration Transport planners Urban planners Inventory potential redevelopment sites Finalize route and stations Assess economy & potential growth areas Estimate financing gap & propose funding
mechanism Refine station area plans with stakeholders Confirm street infra to be changed Monitor progress compared to plan Create branding strategy & market corridor Economic development officials Real-estate developers Developers assess potential real estate projects in corridor
Discuss highpotential redev sites at stations Discuss phasing of dev & contribution to infrastructure/ incentives needed Implementation of TOD corridor Pre-consultation & strategy development Determine transit tech Applying this Process Framework Has the TOD corridor been selected? If no Transport planners, urban planners, and economic development officials should collaborate on an update of the master plan to determine where new transport capacity is needed/growth is happening (Slide 10)
If yes Have the location of transit stations been chosen? If no Urban planners, transport planners, and economic development officials should consult one another on where stations and interchanges should be and where there is prime land that can be readily redeveloped. (Slides 17-21) If yes Do you have a investment budget and business plan? If no If yes Does the TOD corridor have a clear design vision?
If no If yes Is land assembled for implementation? If yes If no Transport planners should finalize cost estimates, check against available budget. Consult with economic development officials and real-estate developers on strength of market, and how LVC techniques would impact interest. (Slides 27-29) Urban planners should work with community stakeholders, landowners, and economic development officials and real-estate developers and local businesses to craft a workable and coherent vision with a plan that can evolve over time as the market changes. (35-37) Urban planners should collaborate with economic development officials and landowners to combine parcels and prepare supplementary infrastructure, and resolve any regulatory hurdles that would slow down redevelopment. (Slide 38) All team members should monitor implementation and coordinate to
ensure development proceeds according to vision. (Slides 39 onward) TOD Corridor Project Planning and Implementation Process: An Overview 1. Regional Planning Step 1. Regional Planning Citys vision should be turned into a regional master plan for metropolitan area Regional master plan defines: Key growth strategies & locations to accommodate new development Overall urban structure & growth patterns Long-term transit plans to build over time Broad framework for more specific corridor/implementation plans Regional master plan should be periodically reviewed and updated 2.1 Set up Core Project Team
Step 2. Consultation & preparation Form a multidisciplinary project team (including economic, urban planning, and transport officials) Obtain funding for planning & coordination activities Ensure all officials are on the same page on corridor vision & strategy Image Source: EMBARQ Brasil. DOTS Cidades - Manual de Desenvolvimento Urbano Orientado ao Transporte Sustentvel. November 2014. Accessed August 23, 2016. http://wricidades.org/research/publication/dots-cidades-manual-de-desenvolvimento-urbano-orientado-ao-transporte. 2.2 Project Area Analysis Step 2. Consultation & preparation Analysis of the TOD project area Socio-economic: population, demographic, economic base, income, race and ethnicity, etc. Transport: transport mode, road network, road width, traffic volume, parking conditions, pedestrian safety facilities, traffic accidents, etc.
Urban: land use, urban services, infrastructure, roadside facilities, urban service facilities, degraded areas, development potential areas, etc. Environment & culture: cultural property, heritage, water, natural and protected landscapes, agricultural land to be preserved, street trees, natural resources, etc. Risk analysis: areas prone to natural disaster Transit demand analysis [Demand size; origin and destination] Quick assessment method Full transportation model Land use analysis Determine the limits of the transit catchment areas and TOD neighborhoods and map land use 2.3 Corridor Assessment: Transit Development Step 2. Consultation & preparation Preliminary questions for Transport planners Current travel patterns and 30-50 year projections? Will proposed new transit infrastructure be adequate to handle this demand?
What informal transit exists along the corridor? How many people will switch modes? Can they be leveraged as an integrated first mile-last mile solution to extend reach? What kind of parking regulations exist currently? Can they be changed to promote transit use? 2.3 Corridor Assessment: Urban Development Step 2. Consultation & preparation Preliminary questions for Urban planners When will the master plan be revised? Can zoning be adjusted in this area specifically? Are there procedures for creating special overlay districts and/or land value capture? Enabling legislation needed? What is the current spatial structure of the city? Where is most growth occurring? How does the proposed TOD/transit corridor match up? Design: Are there good examples? Should a best practice guidebook be published? 2.3 Corridor
Assessment: Economic Development Step 2. Consultation & preparation Preliminary questions for Economic development officials What is the overall economic climate in the city and the country? Which areas are experiencing job growth and residential growth? What new growth needs to be accommodated and where? How does the corridor fit in the economic development strategy? What are real-estate vacancy rates? Can the new transit/TOD corridor have a coherent public identity for marketing? What high-visibility sites/government-owned sites are available for redevelopment? How can a compelling vision be communicated to developers? What are the financing gaps in supporting TOD? 2.4 Corridor Selection Factors for corridor selection:
Customer demand Network advantages Roadway characteristics Ease of implementation Land availability and zoning Costs and budget Political considerations Social equity Environmental impact Step 2. Consultation & preparation 2.4 Corridor Selection Step 2. Consultation & preparation
Additional Steps Evaluate modes Conduct Impact analysis Select route Identify stakeholders (including the public) and roles Assign an unbiased facilitator to steward process and information sharing Encourage participation at each stage Engage Stakeholders 2.5 Select appropriate transit technology Mass rapid transit technology options: Metro rail Light rapid transit (LRT) Monorail Suburban rail
Bus rapid transit (BRT) Factors to consider: Traffic demand Geographic conditions, available land & urban development patterns Capital costs (infrastructure and land) Operational costs Design and implementation Performance Economic, social and environmental impacts Image Source: WRI. Step 2. Consultation & preparation 2.6 Determine (re)development strategy Step 2. Consultation & preparation Depending on the citys context and corridor selection, there may be large parcels of land that could be redeveloped with a TOD design, or implementation may need to be gradual because the corridor is largely already built up.
Small parcels / evolutionary design and planning Ballston-Rosslyn Corridor, Arlington, USA Image Source: Arlington County. R-B Corridor. Photograph. Flickr. November 30, 2010. Accessed November 16, 2016. https://www.flickr.com/photos/arlingtonva/5221498943/sizes/l. Large transformative projects Westfield Stratford City, London Image Source: Photo by EG Focus (2011), https://www.flickr.com/photos/egfocus/6000970969/ 2.7 Stakeholder engagement Step 2. Consultation & preparation Communicate project effectively from the outset to avoid NIMBY and fear of gentrification Stakeholder analysis Media strategy Objectives of consultation:
Explain significance of project to various stakeholders, gain momentum and support Gather additional information about opportunities and constraints Collect more granular information about the issues and needs of TOD corridor neighborhoods/station areas Finalize the objectives to be achieved by the corridor 2.7 Stakeholder engagement Image Source: Source: Ian Carlton and William Fleissig, Advancing Equitable Transit-Oriented Development: Steps to Avoid Stalled Equitable TOD Projects, Living Cities (2014): 6. Step 2. Consultation & preparation 3.1 Network and Service Design Step 3. Transit infra & operational design Network design decisions (applies to BRT): Closed vs. open system Trunk-feeder vs. direct services Express/limited stops
Terminal Direct Services Configuration Trunk-feeder Configuration 3.1 Network and Service Design Step 3. Transit infra & operational design Network design decisions (applies to Metro): Plan for suitable capacity Integrate with network Express/limited stops Source: QuantUrb, CASA Step 3. Transit infra & operational design 3.2 System Capacity and Speed A competitive public transport system is one that competes in terms of:
Total time traveled Cost Comfort Convenience Safety The BRT system in Beijing, China Image Source: Benoit Colin/WRI. Bus Downtown Beijing. Photograph. Flickr. October 7, 2014. Accessed November 28, 3.3 Infrastructure and Technology Step 3. Transit infra & operational design Factors that shape design and engineering
System components Cost Functional attributes Climatic conditions Topographic conditions Cultural preferences Operational characteristics Customer service Busways Stations and intermediate transfer stations Terminals and depots Control centers Traffic control signals Integration facilities Public utilities Landscaping Asphalt/concrete Vehicle technology Fair collection and verification systems 3.4 Customer Service
Step 3. Transit infra & operational design Timely information Clear signage Professional staff Good illumination Security personnel Cleanliness Aesthetic appearance A well-designed station with clear signage in Ahmedabads Janmarg BRT network Image Source: WRI/EMBARQ. Janmarg and City. Photograph. Flickr. September 17, 2010. Accessed November 22, 2016. https://www.flickr.com/photos/embarq/5455483280/sizes/l. 3.5 Modal Integration Step 3. Transit infra & operational design TOD corridors should be integrated with other transport options
Last mile connectivity: Pedestrian safety and quality of walking experience Integration of mass transport corridors with biking systems Taxis, shared services, and other intermediate paratransit options. Surabaya Urban Corridor Development Program- World Bank. Image Source: "Surabaya Urban Corridor Development Program." Hansen Partnership and City Form Lab. June 2014. http://www.hansenpartnership.com.au/projects/urban-design/surabaya/. Image used with permission from the World Bank. 4.1 Business Model for Funding and Financing (Ref. Module 5) Step 4. Financing & business plan What to invest in? Tangible Assets
Intangible Assets Processes How to mobilize investment capital? How to pay for it? Investment revenues (e.g. Transit fares & Land Value Capture) Equity Debt Investment incentives De-risking products Own source revenue How to structure implementation?
Institutional frameworks Legal entities & structures Contracts 4.2 Business and Institutional Structure Step 4. Financing & business plan A business plan must make key decisions regarding: Institutional structure for implementation o What arrangements, contracts, and legal basis distribute risks and responsibilities? o Special purpose agency or single existing department? Capital investment for transit infrastructure What is the financing gap between cost estimates and available resources? Can a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) be used for delivery and operations? Transit system operations [e.g. BRT, LRT, or Metro] o Business structure for operations (e.g. competitive tender with public oversight)?
o Incentive structure (e.g. pay operator by km or by number of passengers)? Land developments along the corridor & value capture o Sell public land? Use regulatory and tax incentives to attract investments? o Create a one-window office to deal with projects in the corridor? o Value capture mechanism to cross-subsidize public transit? Step 4. Financing & business plan 4.3 Transit Operations: Expected Costs and Fare Revenue Understand dynamics of cost components and expected revenues of the transit system: Expected costs: o Fixed operating costs [personnel, insurance, safety, offices, etc.] o Variable operating costs [fuel, parts, maintenance, etc.] o Repayment of capital [ex. vehicle depreciation and cost of infrastructure capital investment and land purchase, etc.] o Expected revenues: o Fare revenue (based on expected ridership and ticket prices) o Ancillary and advertising revenue (e.g. ads in vehicles and stations, leases for station shops, etc.) Questions:
o Should the mass transport system operate with or without subsidies? What kind? How big? o How should the revenues be distributed between the various actors involved in the mass transit system? 4.4 Mass Transit & TOD Marketing Londons metro system has an easily-recognizable brand Step 4. Financing & business plan Mass transit marketing scheme Name and logo Media strategy: information kiosks, demonstration stations, direct community outreach Consistent branding for TOD neighborhoods [place making strategy] Business Improvement Districts (BIDs)
Image Source: Chris Jones. Going Underground (Monument edition). Photograph. Flickr. January 6, 2015. Accessed November 22, 2016. https://www.flickr.com/photos/stopherjones/16701629305/sizes/l. 5.1 Station Area Prioritization Model: The 3 Value (3V) Framework Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Different station areas offer different TOD potential. Economic and social benefits of TOD, including financial gains from Land value capture, can be maximized by understanding and leverating the interplay between node, place and market potential values. Identify development potential (scale, type, timing) based on three values. Develop planning and implementation measures and prioritize limited public resources Develop and communicate with stakeholders a vision for the city Source: Salat Serge and Ollivier Gerald. 2016. "The 3V Framework: Maximizing Economic Opportunities in TOD Station Areas by Matching Place, Node, and Market Potential Values. World Bank, Washington, DC. 5.1 Station Area Prioritization
Model: The 3V Framework Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Node value: value based on a stations location in the network Place value: value based on a stations urban qualities Market potential value: value based on a stations economic potential Image Source: Salat Serge and Ollivier Gerald. 2016. "The 3V Framework: Maximizing Economic Opportunities in TOD Station Areas by Matching Place, Node, and Market Potential Values. World Bank, Washington, DC. 5.1 Station Area Prioritization Model: Node Value (London tube) 250
Number of stations 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 Number of lines per station 90 Million people / year 80 70
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Rank Image Source: Urban Morphology Institute. 5 6 Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Hub, Interchange, Single station Diversity of connectivity Node Accessibility/Centrality Intensity of node activity 5.1 Station Area Prioritization Model: Place Value
Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Mix of land uses Density of social infrastructure Compactness Physical form and street patterns Walkability and bikability Image Source: Source: Urban Morphology Institute. 5.1 Station Area Prioritization Model: Market Potential Value Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Economic attractiveness for developers (job
densities/accessibility; people density) Land and real estate opportunities (FAR/unbuilt land) Market prices and activity Land shortage at city level Image Source: Salat Serge and Ollivier Gerald. 2017. "The 3V Framework: Maximizing Economic Opportunities in TOD Station Areas by Matching Place, Node, and Market Potential Values. World Bank, Washington, DC. 5.2 Finalize station area TOD plans, given corridor strategy Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Excerpts from World Bank Da Nang TOD corridor plans (corridor-level at left and station-level at right) Determine appropriate density levels at each station node, given 3V-based analysis and current market demand Incorporate stakeholder and developer input Codify design guidelines and eventual public space network into zoning regulations
Finalize incentives and affordable housing goals for each area (see more on this in Module 7) 5.3 Affordable Housing Strategy Step 5. Station Area Prioritization & Development Singapore Rental Housing Image Source: Alan Tang Keng Hoe. HDB Buildings in Jurong West, Singapore. Photograph. Flickr. February 12, 2011. https://www.flickr.com/photos/digitaljourney/5444908246/sizes/l. 6.1 Land & Feasibility Assessments Step 6. Land assembly & integration Pre-development:
Detailed design Land use and potentiality Market analysis Financial plan Land use strategy and acquisition Leasing public land to private sector Eminent domain/preemptive right/right of first refusal Private sector acquisition Land readjustment 7.1 Construction Plan Step 7. Implementation & Coordination Finalize executive projects and detailed designs Prepare documentation for investment, bidding, and procurement processes Ensure construction plan includes both physical work
and procedures to minimize disruptions in the city Road closure, noise management Establish procedures for changes and renegotiations Oversee implementation 7.2 Real Estate Market Positioning and Maintenance Property commercialization Residential Rental and sales Retail [finding the right fit for the community] Carparking provision Maintenance Public spaces and local roads: municipal budgets Private spaces: owners Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) Step 7. Implementation & Coordination Downtown Crossing, a BID in Boston, USA
Image Source: Massachusetts Office of Travel & Tourism. Holiday Shopping- Downtown Crossing. Photograph. Flickr. December 13, 2014. Accessed November 22, 2016. https://www.flickr.com/photos/masstravel/16150025227/sizes/l. 7.3 Monitoring and evaluation (Ref. Module 8) Step 7. Implementation & Coordination Systematic monitoring and evaluation (M&E) improves project outcomes and fosters transparency and collaboration by providing objective and quantifiable indications of performance Monitoring: an ongoing process in which stakeholders receive feedback on a project Evaluation: an independent process by which stakeholders receive feedback on an ongoing or completed project Project outputs (e.g. # of new bicycle parking spaces) are differentiated from project outcomes (e.g. mode shift from car to bicycle commuting as a result of the project) Performance indicators: unit of measure to understand results, set out at beginning of a project Active approaches: Surveys and interviews of stakeholders to determine attitudes Passive approaches: Smartcard, mobile phone, and remote sensing data On-site observation
Feedback to identify strengths and weaknesses to take corrective action TOD Corridor various impacts: Mobility: access to jobs and amenities, reduce automobile dependency, average travel times Social: social equity, improved health Environmental: local air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, conservation of green/natural spaces Economic: agglomeration and access to employees, local economic growth, property values Module Quiz 1. Which one of the following statements is TRUE? a. Common mass rapid transit options are: metro rail, light rapid transit, monorail, suburban rail, standard bus systems, bus rapid transit and taxi sharing systems. b. The choice of transit technologies should be consistent with local conditions, taking into account capital costs; operational costs; design and implementation; performance; and economic, social and environmental impacts. c. The project team consists of local government officials and technical consultants who only provide expertise on design and engineering of the project. d. Consumers behavior will adjust according to what transit vehicles is available to them, so there is no need to take demand into consideration when conducting project area analysis.
2. Which one of the following statements is FALSE? a. The operational design decisions will depend on the kind of mass transportation technology the system is based. b. The comparative advantage of a mass transport system to a car-competitive service is its capacity and speed. c. To consumers, sophisticated design and vehicle technologies are the most important considerations. d. Clear signage, system maps, electronic displays and digital voice announcements, professional staff, high-quality illumination, and the presence of security personnel are all important factors enhancing passengers experience in using mass public transport systems. 3. Which one of the following is NOT a key factor in the design and engineering of infrastructure and technology? a. Sophistication b. Cost c. Functional attributes d. Climate conditions e. Cultural preferences f. Operational characteristics Module Quiz 4. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. The first step to provide an effective service is prove a safe route to transit. b. High quality pedestrian access is a key feature of TOD neighborhoods, which can be designed through design factors such as directness and connectivity, aesthetics, ease of movement, legibility, safety and security. c. Provision of affordable housing along the corridor is an important aspect of the corridor strategy to ensure there are a diversity of residential options and residents living within walking distance of the transport corridor. d. Corridors can be designed and implemented in isolation. 5. Which of the following statements on the business plan of TOD implementation is FALSE? a. A business plan includes an institutional structure, a business structure for mass transport, incentive structures and land development along the corridor. b. Investment proceeds and investment incentives are funding sources over the course of the investment. c. A mass transport marketing scheme includes the name, logo, media strategy, information kiosks, demonstration stations and direct community outreach. d. The 3V framework of station area prioritization model includes time value, place value and market value. 6. Which of the following is NOT part of the scope of the land assembly and/or implementation phases of TOD projects? a. Land & feasibility assessments b. Construction plan c. Regional planning exercise d. Real estate market positioning and maintenance e. Monitoring and evaluation 7. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Monitoring and evaluation is only considered during the final step of project implementation
b. Monitoring and evaluation systems provide objective and quantifiable indication of a projects overall performance c. Monitoring and evaluation provides feedback to identify strengths and weaknesses allowing practitioners to take corrective action d. Monitoring and evaluation of a TOD corridor should track social, environmental and economic impact
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