Measuring Stress & Coping

Measuring Stress & Coping

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: FUELING THE PASSION Damon Burton University of Idaho INTRINSIC MOTIVATION DEFINED Intrinsic motivation engaging in an activity for its own sake, particularly the pleasure and satisfaction derived from playing. For example, a girl who skis because

of the fun she has doing what she wants, challenging herself by trying new things and being with her friends skiing new powder on the mountain. COMPONENTS OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Competence feeling talented and skilled, Autonomy in control, selfdetermining, & doing what you want, and Relatedness feeling connected and enjoying

relationships with others. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION DEFINED Extrinsic motivation engaging in behaviors in order to attain contingent outcomes beyond of the activity itself (i.e., rewards, fame, prestige, etc) For example, a boy plays basketball to be recognized, get their names in the paper and win a college scholarship.

SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY (SDT) SDT describes the social factors that will promote intrinsic motivation and internalized forms of extrinsic motivation. Autonomy is necessary to attain true competence and relatedness. SDT determines how extrinsic rewards will influence intrinsic motivation.

SELF DETERMINATION CONTINUUM Low 1 2 3 Amotivation 4 5

Extrinsic Motivation 6 7 High Intrinsic Motivation 1. Amotivation

2. External Regulation 3. Introjected Regulation 4. Identified Regulation 5. Intrinsic Motivation to Experience Stimulation 6. Intrinsic Motivation to Accomplish 7. Intrinsic Motivation to Know AMOTIVATION Amotivation refers to lack of intentionality or absence of motivation. High amotivation prompts feelings of incompetence

and low expectancies due to the belief that success is uncontrollable. EXTERNAL REGULATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION External regulation (EM-ER) - refers to behavior that is regulated through external means such as rewards and constraints. For example, an athlete might go

to practice because she wants to play in the game tomorrow. INTROJECTED REGULATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Introjected Regulation (EM-IR) - individuals begin to internalize the reasons for their actions. Behavior not self-determined because they experience self-imposed

pressure through guilt and anxiety. For example, athletes go to practice because they feel guilty if they miss a session. IDENTIFIED REGULATION EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION EM-IR emitted out of choice. Under EM-IR, athletes highly value the activity, judge it to be important and choose to engage

in it. For example, a soccer player doesnt enjoy weight training but lifts to become a better player. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION TO EXPERIENCE STIMULATION IM-ES describes when one performs the activity to experience pleasant sensations (i.e., sensory and aesthetic

pleasure). For example, a swimmer swims because she enjoys the pleasant sensations of her body gliding through the water. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION TO ACCOMPLISH (IM-A) IM-A involves engaging in an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction gained from

attempting to accomplish or create something or to surpass your previous performance. For example, a tennis player who works on his serve for the pleasure they experience while trying to hit an ace. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION TO KNOW (IM-K) IM-K refers to engaging in a activity

for the pleasure and satisfaction experienced while learning, exploring or trying to understand something new. For example, a basketball player practice a new press offense because they enjoy learning new ways to attack the opponents press. HIERARCHICAL INTRINSIC MOTIVATION MODEL MOTIVATION AS A

SOCIAL PHENOMENON The impact of social factors on motivation is mediated by perceptions of competence, autonomy and relatedness. Motivation is not influenced by social factors directly. The way individuals interpret social factors depends how they facilitate their needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. Individuals are motivated to engage in activities to meet these needs.

SOCIAL FACTORS REDUCING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Social factors reducing intrinsic motivation include: competition, evaluation/feedback and rewards. Competition reduces IM Winning and playing well enhances IM whereas losing and playing poorly lowers IM. Positive feedback increases IM while negative feedback reduces IM. Rewards can both raise and lower IM

in different situations. LEPPER & GREENE (1968) REWARD STUDY Baseline 1 monitored amount of time preschoolers played with markers during free-play time Expected Reward Group promised reward & received one Unexpected Reward Group not promised reward but received one Control Group not promised reward and didnt receive one.

Baseline 2 monitored time played with markers during free-play time. HOW DO REWARDS IMPACT INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Reward impact not determined by number or size of rewards. Impact determined by message behind the reward. How well does the reward enhance perceptions of

competence, autonomy and relatedness? RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION EM + IM = TOTAL MOTIVATION (TM) IM = TM 1 EM

2 IM = TM 1.If EM lowers perceived competence, autonomy and/or relatedness, IM and TM decline. 2.If EM increases perceived competence, autonomy and/or relatedness, IM and TM improve. REWARDS PROMOTING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

Contingent Rewards received for attaining a standard of excellence (e.g., trophy for winning a tourney) Noncontingent Rewards no standard of excellence (e.g., winning lottery) Contingent rewards normally increase IM because they increase feelings of competence and autonomy. Noncontingent rewards reduce IM. PERCEPTIONS KEY HOW MESSAGE INTERPRETED How athletes perceive the reason

rewards are given is the key to IM. Autonomy is necessary to develop strong competence and relatedness. If rewards are view as controlling, it lowers feelings of competence and relatedness too, reducing IM. If rewards are viewed as informational about competence, autonomy and IM must be high as well. FACTORS PROMOTING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

Autonomy support from coaches, parents and peers, The competitive structure of the league (i.e., varsity versus intramural sports) Motivational climate mastery versus outcome The End

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