Main Types of Hazards Associated with Woodworking Operations
1910.213 WOODWORKING MACHINERY REQUIREMENTS Main Types of Hazards Associated with Woodworking Operations Safety Machine hazards
Point of operation Rotary and reciprocating movements In-running nip points (pinch points) Kickbacks Flying chips, material Tool projection
Fire and explosion hazards Electrical hazards Health Noise Vibration Wood dustcarcinogens Chemical hazardsfrom
exposure to coatings, finishings,
adhesives, solvent vapors 2 1910.213(a) Machine Construction General Machines shall be constructed to be free from vibration when largest tool is mounted and run at full speed Run idle at full speed?
This means the tool is on and running at maximum speed without being under load (cutting) 3 1910.213(a) Power Transmission Apparatus All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in accordance with the specific requirements of 1910.219.
4 1910.213(a) Disconnect Switch It is recommended that each power-driven woodworking machine be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the off position.
5 1910.213(a) All tools operating at more than 90v must have their metal parts grounded o Separate ground wire and polarized plug Cutting heads must be machined to fit specific types of arbors
6 1910.213(a) Combs/Featherboards Combs (featherboards) shall be provided at the workplace for use when a standard guard cannot be used. 7
Woodworking Machines 8 1910.213(b) Machine Controls and Equipment A mechanical or electrical power control shall be provided on each machine to make it possible for the operator to cut off the
power from each machine without leaving his position at the point of operation. 9 1910.213(b)(3) Power Failures On applications where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after
power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power. 10 1910.213(b) Operating Controls Operating controls must be placed so the operator has access to
them without reaching over the cutting blade o Must be placed within reach of their regular work station Machines operated by electrical motors must have controls capable of being rendered inoperative o For maintenance, repairs, adjustments, etc. 11
1910.213(b) Foot Pedals and Feeder Attachments Operating treadles must be protected from unintended operation. Feeder attachments must have feed rolls or other moving parts covered to protect operator from pinch points
12 Foot Pedal 13 1910.213(c) Hand-Fed Ripsaws Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall
completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut without considerable resistance. 14
Table Saw 15 1910.213(c) Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator.
16 Kickback Kickbacks occur when a saw seizes the stock and hurls it back at the operator. This can happen when the stock twists and binds against the side of the blades or is caught in the teeth. A blade that is not sharpened, or that is set at an incorrect height, can
cause kickbacks. This can happen with many operations, but primarily with RIP cuts where the wood is being cut with the grain. The wood wants to bind back on the blade and project the scrap piece of wood back at the operator. 17 Avoiding Kickback
1910.213(c) Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs so located as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or throw it back toward the operator. 18 Dogs
Each circular crosscut table saw shall be guarded by a hood which shall meet all the requirements of 1910.213(c)(1) for hoods for circular re-saws. 21 1910.213(f) - Self-Feed Circular Saws Self-feed circular saws
o Guarded by a hood or guard to prevent hands of operators from coming in contact with the in-running rolls. o If self-fed saws are used for ripping, they must be equipped with anti-kickback devices (dogs). 22 1910.213(g) Swing Cut Off Saws
Swing Cut Off Saws o Provided with a hood that completely covers the upper half of the blade and the arbor. o Provided with a guard that will protect the point of operation. o Must be provided with a means to return to its resting position o Limit chain to limit the travel beyond or behind the working table 23
Swinging Cut Off Saw 24 1910.213(h) Radial Saws The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw
arbor The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself of the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with the stock. 25
1910.213(h) Radial Saws Examples 26 1910.213(h) - Kickbacks Each radial saw used for ripping shall be provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs located on both sides of the saw. 27
1910.213(h) Adjustable Stop An adjustable stop shall be provided to prevent the forward travel of the blade beyond the position necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations. 28
1910.213(h) Automatic Return Installation shall be in such a manner that the front end of the unit will be slightly higher than the rear, so as to cause the cutting head to return gently to the starting position when released by the operator. 29
Woodworking Machines Example 1 30 Woodworking Machines Example 2 31
Woodworking Machines Example 3 32 1910.213(h) Radial Saws - Example 33
1910.213(h) Radial Saws Requirements Ripping and ploughing shall be against the direction in which the saw turns. The direction of the saw rotation shall be conspicuously marked on the hood. 34
1910.213(i) Band saws and Band Resaws All portions of the saw blade (band saws) shall be enclosed or guarded, except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table. 35 1910.213(i) - Band saws
38 1910.213(j) - Jointers Jointers o Cylinder cutting head that doesnt extend more than 1/8 from the head. o Each hand-fed jointer with a horizontal cutting head shall have
an automatic guard which will cover all the section of the head on the working side of the fence or gage. 39 Woodworking Machinery 40
1910.213(j) 41 1910.213(m) Wood Shapers and Similar Equipment The cutting heads of each wood shaper, hand-fed panel raiser, or
other similar machine not automatically fed, shall be enclosed with a cage or adjustable guard so designed as to keep the operators hand away from the cutting edge. 42 Wood Shaper
43 Shaper With Adjustable Guard 44 1910.213(m)
Double-spindle shapers o Starting and stopping device for each spindle 45 1910.213(n) Planing Planers o Guard covering the cutting heads
o If exhaust hood used, must be integral to the guard o Guard/hood must protect the feed rolls/in-running nip points 46 Woodworking Machinery - Planers 47
1910.213(o) Wood-Turning Lathes Cutting heads on wood-turning lathes, whether rotating or not, shall be covered as completely as possible by hoods or shields. 48 1910.213(o)
Wood stock held between two centers on a lathe must be protected (as much as possible) with a long curved guard extending over the top of the lathe to prevent the work from being thrown out. If an exhaust system is used it must form an integral part of the guard. 49
Woodworking Machinery - Lathe 50 1910.213(p) Sanding Machines Sanding Machines o Where the sanding belt runs over rollers a guard must prevent
the operator from coming into contact with the in-running nip points. o Drum sanders must be protected above the table by a guard or exhaust hood except for that portion of the sander which is necessary for the stock. 51
1910.213(p) Disk Sanders Disk sanders must have a guard or exhaust hood enclosing the revolving disk. Allowing only enough exposure that is necessary for the application. 52 1910.213(p) Belt Sanders
Belt sanding machines shall be provided with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs onto the pulley. o The unused run of the sanding belt shall be guarded against accidental contact. 53 Guarded Belt Sander?
54 1910.213(r) Miscellaneous Woodworking Machines The mention of specific machines in paragraphs (a) thru (q) and this paragraph (r) of this section, inclusive, is not intended to exclude other woodworking machines from the requirements
that suitable guards and exhaust hoods be provided to reduce to a minimum the hazard due to the point of operation of such machines. 55 1910.213(s) Inspection Maintenance of Woodworking Machinery
All knives and cutting heads of woodworking machines shall be kept sharp, properly adjusted, and firmly secured. Where two or more knives are used, they shall be properly balanced. 56 1910.213(s) Woodworking Requirements Arbors of all circular saws shall be free from play
Sharpening or tension of saw blades or cutters shall be done by persons of demonstrated skill Emphasis shall be placed on the importance of cleanliness of the woodworking area. 57 1910.213(s) Woodworking Requirements
Continued All cracked saws shall be removed from service. The practice of inserting wedges between the saw disk and the collar to form a wobble saw shall be prohibited. 58 1910.213(s)
Push sticks and push blocks shall be provided for small pieces of wood and for pushing the stock past the blade.
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