LHS - Missives from the void

LHS - Missives from the void

20/02/19 Psihologija prevar strtih doc. dr.src David Modic 1 Zgodovina in izvor prevar Beseda fraud (prevara) izhaja iz latinine (fraudem pokodovati). Izraz Scam ali poslovenjeno skem, je prvi uporabil Steve McQueen v intervjuju v reviji Time (1963). Imamo dokumentirane primere prevar vnaprejnjega plaila (i.e. advance fee fraud, oz. AFF) iz 16. stoletja. Skemi se ne spreminjajo bistveno. Mehanika ostaja ista. 2 Kaj vemo o prevarah na splono?

Posametniki niso samo rtve ali varni. Prevare imajo stopnje. Verjemljivost, Odgovor, Izguba. Temu procesu reemo dovzetnost za prevare (i.e. scam compliance). Nihe zares ne ve, koliko nas prevare stanejo. Dobra definicija: Prevare so nelegitimne marketinke ponudbe (npr. Fischer, Lea & Evans, 2013). Ena bolj modrijanska definicija: Nasedanje na spletne prevare je rezultat neracionalnega procesa odloanja (e.g. Fischer, Lea & Evans, 2009). (kar ne pomeni, da so rtve zabite) [email protected] 3

Kaj vemo o prevarah prevarah strtih src (LHS)? Whitty in Buchanan (2012): V tej obliki se prevara prvi masovno pojavi l. 2007 (preko pisem). Veina rtev je osamljenih. Prevara se zane na spletnih straneh, vendar se kmalu prestavi v IM ali elektronsko poto. Rezultati analize pokaejo zgolj ibek vpliv osebnostnih lastnosti na dovzetnost za LHS. Vendar pa moan vpliv psiholokih znailnosti na odziv rtve po prevari.

Moki in enske v povpreju priblino enako pogosto nasedejo (ampak enske izgubijo ve denarja). [email protected] 4 Kaj vemo o prevarah prevarah strtih src (LHS) II? Vzorec: Samo-izbran preko oglaevanja na BBC. N = 6609. Dovzetnost za LHS: Verjetno 58.6% Odgovoril Izgubil

2.3% 1.5% Mehanizmi, ki poveajo dovzetnost: Odnos do reklam F(36,5922) = 2.931 p <.001 P = 1.000 elja po smiselnosti F(61,5922) = 2.574 p <.001 P = 1.000 Predvidevanje F(67,5922) = 2.048 p <.001 P = 1.000 Socialni vpliv (NORM) F(23,5922) = 2.135 p =.001 P = .997 elja po konsistentnosti

Odnos do tveganja (ETINI) F(23,5922) = 1.495 p =.060 P = .963 F(70,5922) = 1.390 p =.018 P = 1.000 [email protected] 5 Potek I. Predpriprava: Izdelava profila ukradene fotografije, moki in enski profili se razlikujejo. Inkorporacija resninih dogodkov. Mid-game: Vzpostavljanje zaupanja. enske ibke, moki samozavestni. Premik na zasebne kanale. Dnevne izmenjave. Poezija. Kopiranje vrednostnega sistema. Zelo intenziven odnos. Idealen partner. Grooming (podobno kot pri spolni zlorabi otrok). [email protected] 6

Potek II. Konnice: Sprva elja po darilih kot znak trdnosti veze, mogoe kaka travma brat ima nesreo, druina ne sfolga Prevaranti si v konnici prisluijo razline stvari: Vizo in pokrite potne stroke iz Afrike. Prevzem socialne mree. Finanni nadzor / odvetniko pooblastilo za upravljanje s premoenjem. rtve poroajo o spolnih zlorabah.

[email protected] 7 Kako prepoznavati lane profile? Kaj pa je to lani profil? Itak vsi laemo. Kar naprej (cf. Hancock, 2007). Tudi pri spletnih zmenkih (cf. Levitt & Dubner, 2005). Cilj torej ni prepoznati lanih profilov. Ampak prepoznati profile, ki nam lahko kodijo na naine, ki jih nismo predvideli. Torej ne postanemo amaterski detektivi in forenziki, ampak vnaprej vemo esa ne bomo naredili, ne glede na to, kako visoke so stave. Npr. ne bom poiljal finanne pomoi, tudi e ti je edina krava na kmetiji umrla. [email protected]

8 Seznanjanje javnosti? V praksi preventivne akcije ne delujejo. Ker spreobraamo samo spreobrnjene (echo chamber). Ker so svarila izven referennega okvirja tistih, ki e niso rtve. Ker preventiva preko primera ne deluje (ko policisti nadzorujejo hitrost na primer). Prevare (vse) lahko gledamo skozi prizmo teorije iger - kot igro nine vsote (0-sum). Ker kampanje velikokrat ojaujejo sekundarno viktimizacijo: Bodi

pameten, ne nasedaj! Ja, potem so tisti, ki so nasedli, zgleda neumni. [email protected] 9 HVALA [email protected] 10 Bibliografija DePaulo, Bella M. (1994). Spotting Lies: Can Humans Learn to Do Better? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3(3), 83-86. Fischer, Peter, Lea, Stephen E. G. , & Evans, Kath M. . (2013). Why do Individuals Respond to Fraudulent Scam Communication and Lose Money? The Psychological Determinants of Scam Compliance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(10), 2060-2072. doi: DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12158 Fischer, Peter, Lea, Stephen, & Evans, Kath. (2009). The Psychology of Scams: Provoking and Commiting Errors of Judgement. Research for the Office of Fair Trading (pp. 260). Exeter, UK: University of Exeter.

Hancock, Jeffrey T. (2007). Digital Deception: Why, when and how people lie online. In A. N. Joinson, K. Y. A. McKenna, T. Postmes & U.-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 289-302). Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. Levitt, Steven D., & Dubner, Stephen J. (2005). Freakonomics : a rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything (1st ed.). New York: William Morrow. Luce, Henry R. (1963, 28th of June). Actors: The Mild One. Time Magazine, LXXXI/26. Whitty, Monica T., & Buchanan, Tom. (2012). The Psychology of the Online Dating Romance Scam. A report for the ESRC. (pp. 23). Leicester, UK: University of Leicester. [email protected] 11

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