Lewis Dot Structures Dr.Gergens - SD Mesa College

Lewis Dot Structures Dr.Gergens - SD Mesa College

Supplemental packet page 66 Lewis Dot Structures Dr.Gergens - SD Mesa College Things to keep in mind when drawing Lewis structure 1. Always count valence electrons 2. Know the preferred number of bonds to these elements CNOFH 4 3 211 3. N O , these elements may have (2) (1) a variable number of bonds (4) (3) 4. If the substance has hydrogen list first in its formula: a. the substance is characterized as an acid b. the H is bound to oxygen in the substances structure 5. F O N Cl Br I S C H for determining bond polarity F O N Cl Br I S C H for determining bond polarity between nonmetal atoms Large difference in electronegativity between HF most polar bond between CF very polar bond F O N Cl Br I S C H Little difference in electronegativity Less polar Between identical atoms, C-C, F-F bonding is nonpolar CH4 1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons. 2. Assemble the bonding framework. group # 3. Connect the other atoms to the central by drawing a single line. Each line represents a single bond made up of two electrons being shared between two atoms. 4. Give the outer most atoms, EXCEPT for hydrogen, three sets of paired electrons.

5. Count valence electrons in your provisional structure. valence electrons calculate in step 1 are present. 7. Apply the octet rule to check to see that each atom has eight electrons surrounding it. 8. Share neighboring electrons by moving electrons to satisfy the octet about each atom. Place a bracket around ions, followed by ion charge. = 4 4H1 = 4 + VE = 8 See if all 6. Add missing electrons to the central atom. 9. 1C 4 H H C H H 1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons. NH4 2. Assemble the bonding framework. 3. Connect the other atoms to the central by drawing a single line. Each line represents a single bond made up of two electrons being shared between two atoms. 4. Give the outer most atoms, EXCEPT for hydrogen, three sets of paired electrons. 5. Count valence electrons in your provisional structure. valence electrons calculate in step 1 are present.

7. Apply the octet rule to check to see that each atom has eight electrons surrounding it. 8. Share neighboring electrons by moving electrons to satisfy the octet about each atom. Place a bracket around ions, followed by ion charge. 1N 5 = 4H1 = + 1 = VE = 5 4 -1 8 See if all 6. Add missing electrons to the central atom. 9. group # H H N H HH 1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons. BH3 2. Assemble the bonding framework. 3. Connect the other atoms to the central by drawing a single line. Each line represents a single bond made up of two electrons being shared between two atoms. 4. Give the outer most atoms, EXCEPT for hydrogen, three sets of paired electrons.

5. Count valence electrons in your provisional structure. valence electrons calculate in step 1 are present. group # 1B 3 = 3 4H1 = 4 + 1 = 1 VE = 8 See if all H 6. Add missing electrons to the central atom. 7. Apply the octet rule to check to see that each atom has eight electrons surrounding it. 8. Share neighboring electrons by moving electrons to satisfy the octet about each atom. 9. Place a bracket around ions, followed by ion charge. H B H H 1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons. CO2 2. Assemble the bonding framework. group # 3. Connect the other atoms to the central by drawing a single line. Each line represents a single bond made up of two electrons being shared between two atoms. 4. Give the outer most atoms, EXCEPT for hydrogen, three sets of paired electrons.

5. Count valence electrons in your provisional structure. valence electrons calculate in step 1 are present. 7. Apply the octet rule to check to see that each atom has eight electrons surrounding it. 8. Share neighboring electrons by moving electrons to satisfy the octet about each atom. Place a bracket around ions, followed by ion charge. = 4 = 12 + VE = 16 See if all 6. Add missing electrons to the central atom. 9. 1C 4 2O6 OOO C C OOO 1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons. NO2 2. Assemble the bonding framework. 3. Connect the other atoms to the central by drawing a single line. Each line represents a single bond made up of two electrons being shared between two atoms.

4. Give the outer most atoms, EXCEPT for hydrogen, three sets of paired electrons. 5. Count valence electrons in your provisional structure. valence electrons calculate in step 1 are present. 7. Apply the octet rule to check to see that each atom has eight electrons surrounding it. 8. Share neighboring electrons by moving electrons to satisfy the octet about each atom. Place a bracket around ions, followed by ion charge. 1N 5 = 5 2 O 6 = 12 + 1 e = 1 VE = 18 See if all 6. Add missing electrons to the central atom. 9. group # O O N O N OO NN

OO O OO valence shell electron pair repulsion VSEPR = ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ Determine the angles between bonds, name the geometry about the central atom and give the its hybridization. IdealIdeal bonding for carbon is Four bonds to carbon - Four bonding modes Geometries H bond angles geometric name 109.5 109.5 H C H geometric name bond angles tetrahedral H N H trigonal planar H

107.5 H107.5 pyramidal or trigonal pyramid : C 180 C C H linear O 180 C O linear Ideal bonding angles for carbon O H 104.5 H geometric name H 120C 120 120 H 120 H 109.5 H109.5 Non-Ideal Geometries bond angles H

bent N : N N N H H <120 bent O C Bond angles for non-ideal geometries are less than an ideal angle in ideal for C. H This is because an electron pair 1) occupies a lot of space & H 2) is held close to nucleus of central atom supplemental HO 70 Lewis Dot molecular compounds Molecular Geometry Ideal Geometry Non-Ideal Geometry no lone pair of electrons on the central atom X

X tetrahedral trigonal planar X lone pair of electrons on the central atom X linear linear .. X pyramidal .. .. X Molecular Polarity for Ideal Geometries .. X .. X bent .. ..X bent Molecular Polarity for Non-Ideal Geometries symmetrical nonpolar asymmetrical

polar H H X H H F H X F H tetrahedral tetrahedral in general, non-ideal geometries give rise to polar molecules 1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons. 2. Assemble the bonding framework. 3. Connect the other atoms to the central by drawing a single line. Each line represents a single bond made up of two electrons being shared between two atoms. 4. Give the outer most atoms, EXCEPT for hydrogen, three sets of paired electrons. 5. Count valence electrons in your provisional structure. valence electrons calculate in step 1 are present. See if all 6. Add missing electrons to the central atom. 7. Apply the octet rule to check to see that each atom has eight electrons surrounding it. 8. Share neighboring electrons by moving electrons to satisfy the octet about each atom. 9. Place a bracket around ions, followed by ion charge.

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